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[en] Full nuclear disarmament and the effective non-proliferation of atomic weapons are two of the most challenging aspirations of humankind. To tackle these issues, most analysts focus on the experiences of nuclear-weaponowning states. A different perspective is taken here, however, by drawing lessons regarding global non-proliferation and disarmament from one of the most successful cases of compliance worldwide: namely, Latin America.
[en] The strategic air forces (Forces aeriennes strategiques - FAS) have just celebrated 55 years of operations, demonstrating every day the relevance of our deterrence doctrine. The credibility and technological excellence of our FAS are the fruit of effort made by France since the beginning of the nineteen-sixties in order to secure its sovereignty
[en] Effects of Noopept (N-phenylacetyl-L-prolylglycine ethyl ester) on the relative level of proliferation marker Ki-67 and cell cycle parameters were studied in HEK293 and SH-SY5Y cell lines. The previously established multifactorial mechanism of action of the drug includes enhancement of neurotrophin NGF and BDNF expression and increase in HIF-1 activity. The possible mitogenic action of Noopept was estimated by its effect on cell proliferation. Noopept did not affect cell distribution over G1, S, G2 cell cycle phases and the relative level of proliferation marker Ki-67 in the cell lines under study. These data suggest that Noopept does not stimulate cell growth.
[en] Objective: • As a follow-up to PRADA, PROSA addresses the development of a “coordinated or harmonized” set of GIF and INPRO PROSA assessment tools. It will identify/define the interface of the PR and safeguard ability assessment tools of both approaches at their different levels of evaluation, in full consideration of the scope of their objectives, and examine the validity of a refined methodology by evaluating a mutually beneficial reference case. • A second objective is to inform the approach to revise the INPRO Methodology Sustainability Assessment in the area of Proliferation Resistance.
[en] The paper presents a situational analysis and experiences of Malawi in implementation of safeguards. The paper is divided into three parts. Firstly, the paper provides a background to the country in relation to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). Secondly, the paper introduces the efforts Malawi has made to fulfil its domestic obligations under the NPT and, finally, the paper discusses the implementation of safeguards outlining some of the challenges and solutions developed in national accounting of nuclear material. Malawi is a party to the NPT, as well as the Treaty of Pelindaba – a regional nuclear weapon free zone treaty. The country concluded a Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement (CSA) and Additional Protocol. Making strides to provide a conducive environment for the implementation of safeguards, Malawi developed and enacted the Atomic Energy Act in 2011. Part thirteen of the Act, Sections 66 to 69, makes provisions for the peaceful use of nuclear material, prohibits proliferation activities and provides for application, and cooperation in the implementation, of safeguards. The Act also makes provisions for accounting of nuclear material and monitoring of facilities in Malawi. Malawi possesses a nuclear mine, situated in the northern part of the country, called Kayelekera Uranium Mine. Mining has been in operation since 2009 but, currently, operations have been halted due to the low price of uranium. The country accounts for the nuclear material produced and exported from the country. Initially, nuclear material was accounted for through paper trails. However, in order to ease the reporting of information, the IAEA with support from Member States developed an online system which has simplified reporting and enabled effective implementation of safeguards. (author)
[en] Introduction. Bone tissue regeneration requires a three-dimensional biological setting. An ideal scaffold should enable cell proliferation and differentiation by mimicking structure and mechanical properties of the compromised defect as well as carrying growth factors. Two-photon polymerization (2PP) allows the preparation of 3D structures with a micrometric resolution. Methods. In this study, 2PP was applied to design scaffolds made from biocompatible methacrylated D,L-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone copolymers (LC) with a controlled porous architecture. Proliferation and differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells on LC was analyzed and compared to a standard inorganic urethane-dimethacrylate (UDMA) matrix. To functionalize LC and UDMA surfaces we analyzed a biomimetic, layer-by-layer coating, which could be modified in stiffness and integration of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and evaluated its effect on osteogenic differentiation. Results. On LC surfaces, BMSC demonstrated an optimal proliferation within pore sizes of 60–100 μm and showed a continuous expression of Vimentin. On the polyelectrolyte multilayer coating a significant increase in BMSC proliferation and differentiation as marked by Osteonectin expression was achieved using stiffness modification and BMP2 functionalization. Conclusion. Combining 3D-Design with biofunctionalization, LC offers a promising approach for future regenerative applications in osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs. (paper)
[en] The Franco-German couple has long been characterized by divergent trajectories on nuclear matters, and antagonist historical decisions still frame the current relationship. In France, the creation of a national deterrent led to a will to preserve independence, including vis-a-vis NATO, and to uphold the importance of deterrence to maintain security. In Germany, after a late decision to abandon national nuclear ambitions, nuclear weapons were mainly considered through the prism of NATO. Under the influence of major pacifist movements at the end of the Cold War, nuclear weapons became almost taboo. In recent years, however, the two partners have reconciled some of their views on this matter, which could enable them to act in tandem and become more influential in addressing contemporary challenges on strategic stability, arms control, nonproliferation and disarmament. (author)
[en] The role of NF-κB, cAMP/PKA, JAKs/STAT3, ERK1/2, p38, JNK, and p53 signaling pathways in the realization of growth potential of mesenchymal, neural, erythroid, and granulomonocytic progenitor cells were examined in vitro. Using selective blockers of signaling molecules, we revealed some principal distinctions of their involvement in determination of proliferation-differentiation status of the progenitor cells of different functional classes. The most salient peculiarities were observed in the roles of cAMP/PKA, JNK, and JAKs/STAT3 signaling pathways in the control of functions of various types of the regeneration-competent elements. The specific features of intracellular signaling revealed in histogenetically and functionally different progenitor cells attest to visibility of differentiated pharmacological stimulation of regeneration in individual tissues and prospectiveness in the development of targeted remedies for regenerative medicine based on modifiers of activity of the intracellular signaling molecules.