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[en] Due to the Covid-19 pandemic, the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), which this year celebrates the 50. anniversary of its entry into force, has had its five-year review conference postponed for the first time in its history. This is not the only major diplomatic event that cannot be held this Spring. The postponement of the tenth NPT Review Conference comes with its share of hesitations, uncertainties and other issues. One of them is whether it can be useful. (author)
[en] The end of the INF Treaty on Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces, further missile tests in North Korea or the use of chemical weapons in Syria have again shown in 2019 that global arms control is currently facing severe stress tests. The German government is therefore pursuing a number of initiatives to counter the erosion of the rules-based order.
[de]Das Ende des INF-Vertrags über nukleare Mittelstreckensysteme, weitere Raketentests in Nordkorea oder der Einsatz von Chemiewaffen in Syrien haben auch im Jahr 2019 gezeigt, dass die globale Rüstungskontrolle derzeit schweren Belastungsproben ausgesetzt ist. Die Bundesregierung verfolgt daher eine Reihe von Initiativen, um der Erosion der regelbasierten Ordnung entgegenzuwirken.
[en] Myxoid liposarcoma (MLPS) is an adipocytic tumour and second commonest among the types of liposarcoma. It exhibits a wide histological spectrum. It is important to be aware of this diversity of morphology in this tumour to prevent a wrong diagnosis. Heterologous differentiation in myxoid liposarcoma is reported; however, this is rare. To date, seven cases of MLPS with cartilaginous differentiation have been reported. Only five of these were further confirmed by cytogenetic analysis. We are reporting the 8th case of MLPS with cartilaginous differentiation. A 66-year female presented with posterior left thigh mass. Excision was done. Microscopic examination showed sheets of bland spindle cells containing round to oval nuclei and fine, delicate chicken-wire vessels. The firm blue appearing areas, which accounted for about 20% of the tumor volume, were characterised by mature hyaline cartilage. The final diagnosis was MLPS, showing prominent cartilaginous differentiation. Anterior and lateral margins were involved. Tumour was very close to the rest of the resection margins. FNCLCC grade was 1. Provisional pathological stage, as per staging system of the Union for International Cancer Control for extremity, was pT2. Patient was examined by oncologists. Wide local excision is in plan as two margins were involved by the tumour, while rest of the margins were very close to tumour. (author)
[en] Mps1/TTK plays an important role in development of many tumors. The purpose of the present study was designed to investigate the role of TTK in colon cancer. We analyzed TTK and colon cancer in the GEO database, colon cancer tissues and normal tissues were collected to verify the results by immunohistochemistry. We detected the TTK expression in the colon cancer cell lines, and overexpressed or silenced TTK expression in colon cancer cell lines. GEO database showed that the expression of TTK was higher in the colon cancer tissues than normal tissues, higher level of TTK shows unfavourable prognosis in colon patients. Furthermore, high differentiation of colon shows the lower expression of TTK. The higher expression of TTK links with the high microsatellite status. However, the expression of TTK has no significant difference among the different stages of colon cancer patients, and has no significant relationship with recurrence or relapse. Here, we also report that the differential expression of TTK in colon cancer cells alters the intrinsic negative regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation, resulting in the difference of proliferation and differentiation capacity. TTK could activate the PKCα/ERK1/2 to influence the proliferation and inactivate the PI3K/AKT pathway to inhibition the expression of MUC2 and TFF3 that related to the differentiation of colon cells. In conclusions, TTK promote the colon cancer cell proliferation via activation of PKCα/ERK1/2 and inhibit the differentiation via inactivation of PI3K/Akt pathway. TTK inhibition may be the potential therapeutic pathway for the treatment of colon cancer.
[en] This year marks the 50th anniversary of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, which has been a key component in spurring the worldwide spread of peaceful nuclear technology for development.
[en] The new nitroisofalvones 2a-k were synthesized via nitration of the corresponding isoflavones 1a-f using NH4NO3/TFAA in acetonitrile. The aminoisoflavones 3a-g, also new, were produced by selective reduction of the corresponding nitroisoflavones with SnCl2.2H2O. The nitro- and aminoisoflavones, tested in vitro concerning their effects on the proliferation of endothelial cells showed modest activities. All the new products are fully characterized and the nitro compounds analyzed thoroughly by NMR to allow complete assignment of the proton and carbon resonance and to establish the orientation of nitration. (author)
[en] In 2018-2019, the United States launched a diplomatic initiative intended to introduce a collective reflection on the creation of an environment conducive to nuclear disarmament (CEND). This approach brings together politically and geographically diverse states in a pragmatic dialogue by inviting them to share their security concerns and to examine the link between the strategic context and nuclear disarmament. Presented at a time when debates on Article VI of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons are particularly heated, the initiative has experienced difficult first days. However, it now seems increasingly accepted in the multilateral forums concerned. This note focuses on the political and theoretical foundations of CEND before analyzing the evolution of international reactions
[fr]En 2018-2019, les Etats-Unis ont lance une initiative diplomatique destinee a introduire une reflexion collective sur la creation d'un environnement propice au desarmement nucleaire (CEND). Cette approche rassemble des Etats politiquement et geographiquement divers dans un dialogue pragmatique en les invitant a partager leurs preoccupations securitaires et a examiner l'articulation entre contexte strategique et desarmement nucleaire. Presentee a un moment ou les debats sur l'article VI du Traite sur la non-proliferation des armes nucleaires sont particulierement animes, l'initiative a connu des premiers jours difficiles. Toutefois, elle semble aujourd'hui de mieux en mieux acceptee dans les enceintes multilaterales concernees. Cette note s'interessera aux fondements politiques et theoriques de CEND avant d'analyser l'evolution des reactions internationales. (auteur)
[en] 80 patients with stomach cancer were examined, who were identified by MSI on loci VAT 25; VAT 26, the proliferation index of Ki-67 and the p53 gene mutation. The frequency of wild and mutant variants of the p53 gene was studied according to statement of the VAT 25 ta VAT 26 genes stability. In order to assess the prolefethative potential of cells in stomach cancer, the tumor tissue studied the expression of Ki-67, depending on the presence of instability of microsatellites in the loci VAT 25 ta VAT 26. The level of proliferation activity was also assessed depending on the presence of a p53 mutation. The presence of MSI in tumor cells on the locus of VAT 25, there was in most cases a wild version of the gene p53. The absence of MSI according to these loces, the p53 mutation was observed more often. When comparing the differences between them, there were found that in the absence of MSN on VAT 26, the ratio between the absence of a p53 mutation and its presence was reliably different from the ratio of instability. That is why, this can be argued that in stomach cancer mutation of the p53 gene was observed mainly in tumors with the absence of MSN on loci VAT 25 ta 26. And now has been proven, that the data suggest that there are a multifaceted genetic disorder in carcinogenesis. In tumors with preserved function of stability genes, that is why, with the possibility of restoring chromosomal breakdowns, the occurrence and proliferation of malignant cells is associated with the violation of apoptosis at critical points in the process of cell division. In this case, this realize due to the impossibility of mutant form of the p53 gene to synthesize the necessary quarter configuration of the corresponding protein with the latter’s continued inability to stop the process of DNA replication. In this topic has been established that the mutation of the main control gene leads to loss of control over DNA and can contribute to the emergence of a malignant cell, and further loss of cell differentiation is caused by other factors. Furthermore has been revealed that the proliferative activity of swollen cells in stomach cancer has a clear association with the instability of microsatellites on both studied loca of chromosomes. (author)
[en] Patients with advanced stage ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC) have a poor prognosis due to resistance to conventional platinum chemotherapy. Recent studies have demonstrated that PI3K/AKT/mTOR and ERK1/2 signaling pathways are involved in this chemoresistance. Progranulin (PGRN) overexpression contributes to cisplatin resistance of epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines. Also, PGRN expression is regulated by AKT/mTOR and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in different cell types. Thus, the present study was designed to identify if PGRN expression is regulated by AKT, mTOR, and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in the OCCC cell line TOV-21G. Cultured TOV-21G cells were incubated with different concentrations of pharmacological cell signaling inhibitors. PGRN expression and phosphorylation of ERK1/2, AKT, and mTOR were assessed by Western blotting. Inhibition of AKT, mTOR, and ERK1/2 significantly reduced PGRN expression. Cell viability was not affected, while cell proliferation significantly decreased with all inhibitors used in this study. These observations demonstrated that inhibition of PI3K/AKT/mTOR and ERK1/2 signaling pathways reduces PGRN expression in TOV-21G cells. Thus, PGRN could be considered as a candidate for explaining the high resistance to platinum-based treatment and a potential biomarker for therapy response to cell signaling inhibitors in patients with OCCC.
[en] The Nuclear Forensics International Technical Working Group (ITWG) is an informal, unaffiliated association of nuclear forensics practitioners that identifies, develops, and promotes best practices in the field of nuclear forensics. It was established in 1995 amidst heightened concerns over the threat posed by nuclear smuggling and continues to help forensics practitioners investigate nuclear security events. To advance its mission, ITWG carries out a variety of unique activities including the conduct of exercises designed to inform best practices and the production of guidelines documents on nuclear forensics techniques. ITWG works actively with other international nuclear forensics efforts like the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism (GICNT) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to promote forensics as a nuclear security tool, and its activities both inform and complement work done by the GICNT and IAEA. The ITWG conducts much of its work through Task Groups. There are presently five task groups: Evidence & Testimony, Exercises, Guidelines, National Nuclear Forensic Libraries, and Training & Outreach. Additionally, the ITWG meets annually, with the first part of the annual meeting being devoted to the ITWG Nuclear Forensics Laboratories (INFL), where the presentations and discussions are largely technical and aimed at the laboratory practitioner as well as professional development. The second part involves individual sessions of the task groups as well as plenary sessions where the presentations are of more general interest. The most recent meeting of the ITWG, i.e. ITWG-23, was held in June 2018 at Switzerland’s Federal Training Center in Schwartzenberg, with the SPIEZ laboratory serving as host.