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[en] The alert came just before sunrise in Vienna on 11 March 2011. The on-call emergency response manager reviewed the seismic report that opened on his laptop screen. Within minutes, staff trained in specialized response roles were called into the IAEA’s Incident and Emergency Centre (IEC). He had initiated the IEC’s ‘full response’ for the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident, based on the results of an assessment that followed pre-established procedures. ‘Full response’ means that over 200 staff members trained in regular exercises operate in 12-hour shifts, 24 hours per day, gathering information from emergency contact points in the ‘Accident State’ — in this case, Japan — and other Member States, dispatching IAEA assistance when requested, informing the international community, while updating the media and public and coordinating the international response.
[en] Less than an hour. That’s the time it took the earthquake-triggered tsunami of 2011 to reach Japan’s eastern shoreline. Soon after, the first tsunami hit the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, leading to an accident that forced tens of thousands of people to evacuate. Since then, the Government of Japan and the authorities of Fukushima Prefecture have made significant efforts to make much of the evacuated areas inhabitable again. A decade after the accident, what does life look like in the affected areas of Fukushima Prefecture? The IAEA has provided technical expertise, equipment, expert missions and guidance on recovery operations — based on international examples and the IAEA safety standards. It has been supporting Japanese authorities and scientists in three technical areas: radiation monitoring, remediation and the management of waste from decontamination activities.
[en] Why is leadership vital in nuclear safety? Leadership is needed to initiate appropriate safety actions, motivate staff to ensure safety procedures are followed 24/7, and provide guidance on implementing safety measures. Learning about the importance of leaders in safety is part of the IAEA International School of Nuclear and Radiological Leadership for Safety, launched in 2016. Cultivating a safety culture among staff, so that they can understand the importance of safety and the measures required to sustain it, is key in the nuclear industry. Establishing a strong safety culture is one the most fundamental management principles when using nuclear technology. It aims to strengthen the implementation of a systemic approach to safety, that is, the interaction between humans, technology and organizations within the national nuclear infrastructure. The importance of safety culture is one of the key lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident.
[en] The accident at the Japanese nuclear power plant (NPP) Fukushima-1 in March 2011 showed that possibility of accidents with potentially serious radiation consequences could not be excluded with large-scale measures for improvement of safety level. For spent nuclear fuel storage facilities, one of such accidents may be the interruption of heat removal from spent nuclear fuel (SNF) due to the failure of the cooling system as a result of disruption of the power supply system with the failure of backup power sources or rapid full dehydration of the wet SNF storage as a result of the destruction of building structures and its depressurization. The decision to take preventive measures in advance to minimize exposure to personnel and the public is based on conservative estimates of possible radioactive discharges. To perform such assessments, the operating organizations carry out a calculated justification of the thermal and hydraulic characteristics of the SNF system in the accident scenarios with long-term blackout and a violation of heat removal. APROS is one of the software tools that are used in SEC NRS for calculating the thermal-hydraulic characteristics of systems in transient modes by solving the equations of heat and mass transfer in a steam-water mixture. For more detailed calculations of the structural elements of spent fuel assemblies (SFA) temperature, the ANSYS software is used, which implements the finite element method. The results obtained with the help of the above simulation tools are used by specialists of SEC NRS to assess the protective measures developed by operating organizations.
[en] Under the CRP D1.50.19 focusing on the optimization of remediation of radioactive contaminated agricultural land, one important objective is to update the existing decision support system DSS4NAFA to support data management during remediation activities in the aftermath of a nuclear emergency affecting food and agriculture. During remediation, the need exists for keeping an overview of the remediation activities and, in particular, where, when and how these activities are carried out. Further, it is imperative to keep track of the efficiency and effectiveness of remediation activities (e.g. reduction of soil and food contamination). At this moment the workflow for the remediation module is being developed in close collaboration with the CRP D1.50.19 research partners from across the world for addressing the above-mentioned needs for enhanced data management during remediation.
[en] Automatic translation: The Chernobyl disaster led to a radioactive soil contamination, and that was the reason food contamination nutrition. Through plants radioactive substances enter the body domestic animals and agricultural products, including milk and meat. To a large extent, radioactive substances enter the body with dairy products. Continuous consumption of contaminated milk leads to an increase in the internal radiation of the body and the risk of cancer. Milk is one of the staple foods that people receive from the moment they are born and consume throughout their lives. Milk contains all the substances necessary for the body - proteins, fats, minerals, vitamins. Many tasty and nutritious products are obtained from milk - butter, cheese, cream, sour cream, sour milk, ice cream and many others.
[uk]Чернобыльская катастрофа привела к радиоактивному загрязнению почвы, и это стало причиной загрязнения продуктов питания. Через растения радиоактивные вещества поступают в организм домашних животных и сельскохозяйственные продукты, в том числе молоко и мясо. В значительной степени радиоактивные вещества поступают в организм с молочными продуктами. Постоянное употребление загрязненного молока приводит к увеличению внутреннего облучения организма и риска онкологических заболеваний. Молоко является одним из основных продуктов питания, который люди получают с момента своего рождения, и употребляют на протяжении всей жизни. Молоко содержит все необходимые для организма вещества - белки, жиры, минеральные элементы, витамины. Из молока получают множество вкусных и питательных продуктов - масло, сыр, сливки, сметану, кислое молоко, мороженное и многие другие.
[en] ESR is a crown research institute owned by the New Zealand government. It has a staff of over 320 over four science centre locations and covers a wide range of testing and consultancy areas from water safety through to forensics (https://www.esr.cri.nz/our-services/testing). ESR’s National Centre of Radiation Science (NCRS) section, which our ionizing radiation calibration service is part of consists of 6 scientists and 2 technicians. Our roles include regulator support; provision of scientific and technical advice; calibrations of radiation detectors; operation of national waste store; provision of training; monitoring, research, emergency and incident response.
[en] Radiological environmental impact assessment models are important tools to ensure protection of the public and the environment. The IAEA has an ongoing programme to improve capabilities in this area by model testing and comparison, reaching consensus on modelling philosophies, approaches and parameter values. This publication describes and summarizes the findings of Working Group 9 carried out during the IAEA EMRAS II (Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety) programme. The results presented draw on international model validation exercises conducted to test and improve the predictive ability of models used for the assessment of radioactive contamination in urban settings, including dispersion and deposition events, short and long term contaminant redistribution following deposition events, and the effectiveness of potential countermeasures (protective actions, including remedial actions) for reducing human exposures.
[en] Automatic translation: The Chernobyl disaster has led to radioactive contamination of forests, and the gifts of the forest, including mushrooms, can be dangerous to your health. It is known that the main mineral element in mushrooms is potassium. From a chemical point of view, radioactive cesium is analogous to potassium, and therefore is concentrated in mushrooms: it is known that the content of cesium-137 in mushrooms is many times higher than in soil. In the first years after the accident, people were afraid to pick mushrooms. However, in the new economic conditions, mushrooms turned out to be a good help to the family budget. Mushrooms are delicious and contain many nutrients that humans need. More than 200 types of edible mushrooms grow in Belarusian forests, of which 35 are well-known, which are traditionally used in the diet of both rural and urban residents.
[uk]Чернобыльская катастрофа привела к радиоактивному загрязнению лесов, и дары леса, в том числе грибы, могут быть опасными для Вашего здоровья. Известно, что основным минеральным элементом в грибах является калий. С химической точки зрения, радиоактивный цезий является аналогом калия, и поэтому концентрируется в грибах: известно, что содержание цезия-137 в грибах во много раз выше, чем в почве. В первые годы после аварии люди боялись собирать грибы. Однако в новых экономических условиях грибы оказались хорошим подспорьем к семейному бюджету. Грибы вкусны и содержат много питательных элементов,необходимых для человека. В белорусских лесахпроизрастает более 200 типов съедобных грибов, изкоторых 35 хорошо известных, которые традиционноиспользуются в питании и сельских и городских жителей.
[en] This Safety Report provides guidance on the safe use of radiation for imaging and treatment in veterinary medicine with the objective of ensuring the safety and radiation protection of workers and members of the public. The publication addresses occupational exposure and public exposure in the use of radiation in veterinary medicine and safety issues that should be considered in order to be compliant with the International Basic Safety Standards (IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GSR Part 3). Consideration is given to the topics of source security and emergency response that might arise with the use of radioactive material in veterinary medicine. Although primarily intended for regulators and workers in veterinary medicine, the publication will also be relevant for professional bodies, ethics committees, and suppliers of equipment and software.