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[en] This annex provides an example of a protection strategy for a nuclear or radiological emergency. The example protection strategy has been developed using the outline given in Appendix II and is intended to help States identify the relevant information to be given in a strategy, as foreseen in this document, notwithstanding the fact that the level of information and details to be given in the national protection strategy will be driven by the national emergency preparedness and response framework.
[en] ESR is a crown research institute owned by the New Zealand government. It has a staff of over 320 over four science centre locations and covers a wide range of testing and consultancy areas from water safety through to forensics (https://www.esr.cri.nz/our-services/testing). ESR’s National Centre of Radiation Science (NCRS) section, which our ionizing radiation calibration service is part of consists of 6 scientists and 2 technicians. Our roles include regulator support; provision of scientific and technical advice; calibrations of radiation detectors; operation of national waste store; provision of training; monitoring, research, emergency and incident response.
[en] A nuclear incident affects large territories through the deposition of radionuclides. This contamination can lead to long-term consequences for people and the economy. The subsequent data collection, data management and decision-making can become overwhelming with traditional methods, which inevitably increases the response time and effectiveness. A decision support system can aid with the efficient allocation of resources as well as the increase in transparency and robustness of the decision-making process. DSS4NAFA, a decision support system (DSS) jointly developed by the FAO and IAEA, can be used to manage and visualize this spatial data in real time. This research proposes a multi-criteria decision aiding system to optimize the remediation actions on a parcel basis, monitored by DSS4NAFA. The optimal agricultural decontamination strategy starts with the localization of the most urgent clean-up sites. Thereafter, the most applicable remediation action should be performed on the identified prioritized parcels and finally the optimal combination of remedial actions in time is proposed. To answer this first question - Where to act first? – The importance of an agricultural parcel is determined by a set of region-specific criteria and the corresponding decision makers (DM) preferences. The determination and importance of the criteria is completely dependent on the scale and stakeholders involved, it can range from a single farmer to an agricultural region with a multitude of decision makers.
[en] In a nuclear emergency, the communicator’s role is almost as crucial as that of the first responder. Providing clear, accurate information amid the alarm and dread that emergencies provoke — when every second counts — can save lives.
[en] Spent fuel pools (SFPs) are large accident hardened structures that are used to temporarily store irradiated nuclear fuel. Due to the robustness of the structures, severe accidents involving SFPs are generally regarded as highly improbable events. The safety and security of spent fuel pools are continuously re-assessed as new information becomes available or the operating conditions of the plants or pools change. For example, the terrorist attacks in the USA on September 11, 2001, prompted studies on the vulnerability of spent fuel storage facilities to potential terrorist attacks in many countries . More recently, the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident  that followed after the Tohoku earthquake on March 11, 2011, has renewed international interest in the safety of spent nuclear fuel stored in SFPs under prolonged loss-of-cooling conditions , although the SFPs and the fuel stored in the pools remained safe during the accident.
[en] This Safety Report provides guidance on the safe use of radiation for imaging and treatment in veterinary medicine with the objective of ensuring the safety and radiation protection of workers and members of the public. The publication addresses occupational exposure and public exposure in the use of radiation in veterinary medicine and safety issues that should be considered in order to be compliant with the International Basic Safety Standards (IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GSR Part 3). Consideration is given to the topics of source security and emergency response that might arise with the use of radioactive material in veterinary medicine. Although primarily intended for regulators and workers in veterinary medicine, the publication will also be relevant for professional bodies, ethics committees, and suppliers of equipment and software.
[en] Under the CRP D1.50.19 focusing on the optimization of remediation of radioactive contaminated agricultural land, one important objective is to update the existing decision support system DSS4NAFA to support data management during remediation activities in the aftermath of a nuclear emergency affecting food and agriculture. During remediation, the need exists for keeping an overview of the remediation activities and, in particular, where, when and how these activities are carried out. Further, it is imperative to keep track of the efficiency and effectiveness of remediation activities (e.g. reduction of soil and food contamination). At this moment the workflow for the remediation module is being developed in close collaboration with the CRP D1.50.19 research partners from across the world for addressing the above-mentioned needs for enhanced data management during remediation.
[en] Automatic translation: The Chernobyl disaster has led to radioactive contamination of forests, and the gifts of the forest, including mushrooms, can be dangerous to your health. It is known that the main mineral element in mushrooms is potassium. From a chemical point of view, radioactive cesium is analogous to potassium, and therefore is concentrated in mushrooms: it is known that the content of cesium-137 in mushrooms is many times higher than in soil. In the first years after the accident, people were afraid to pick mushrooms. However, in the new economic conditions, mushrooms turned out to be a good help to the family budget. Mushrooms are delicious and contain many nutrients that humans need. More than 200 types of edible mushrooms grow in Belarusian forests, of which 35 are well-known, which are traditionally used in the diet of both rural and urban residents.
[uk]Чернобыльская катастрофа привела к радиоактивному загрязнению лесов, и дары леса, в том числе грибы, могут быть опасными для Вашего здоровья. Известно, что основным минеральным элементом в грибах является калий. С химической точки зрения, радиоактивный цезий является аналогом калия, и поэтому концентрируется в грибах: известно, что содержание цезия-137 в грибах во много раз выше, чем в почве. В первые годы после аварии люди боялись собирать грибы. Однако в новых экономических условиях грибы оказались хорошим подспорьем к семейному бюджету. Грибы вкусны и содержат много питательных элементов,необходимых для человека. В белорусских лесахпроизрастает более 200 типов съедобных грибов, изкоторых 35 хорошо известных, которые традиционноиспользуются в питании и сельских и городских жителей.
[en] Radiological environmental impact assessment models are important tools to ensure protection of the public and the environment. The IAEA has an ongoing programme to improve capabilities in this area by model testing and comparison, reaching consensus on modelling philosophies, approaches and parameter values. This publication describes and summarizes the findings of Working Group 9 carried out during the IAEA EMRAS II (Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety) programme. The results presented draw on international model validation exercises conducted to test and improve the predictive ability of models used for the assessment of radioactive contamination in urban settings, including dispersion and deposition events, short and long term contaminant redistribution following deposition events, and the effectiveness of potential countermeasures (protective actions, including remedial actions) for reducing human exposures.
[en] The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident reinforced the importance of having adequate national and international safety standards and guidelines in place so that nuclear power and technology remain safe and continue to provide reliable low carbon energy globally. By recognizing the lessons learned from the 2011 accident, the IAEA has been revising its global safety standards to ensure that Member States continue to receive up-to-date guidance of high quality.