Results 1 - 10 of 86
Results 1 - 10 of 86. Search took: 0.019 seconds
|Sort by: date | relevance|
[en] Nuclear regulators should not actively take part in issues concerning nuclear energy policy. Their essential function is to contribute as effectively as possible to nuclear safety. The principal focus will be on the application of this concept since the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident. By using a comparative approach, the paper will address the measures taken by various countries to ensure the independence of their respective nuclear regulator, especially in light of the recent nuclear accident. (author)
[en] From 7-12 April, approximately 16,300 scientists from 113 countries came together at the European Geosciences Union (EGU) 2019 General Assembly held in Vienna, Austria. Close to 16,250 oral and poster presentations were shared in 683 topic sessions in this unique opportunity for scientific sharing and global networking. The SWMCN Section and Laboratory’s activities were reported in presentations covering topics in radionuclide tracers for soil erosion investigations, area-wide soil moisture screening, climate resilient crop production, remediation of radioactive contamination of agricultural land and multi-isotope approaches to tracing pollutants. Eight staff members, two interns, and one consultant attended the conference to share the research work performed in the past years. The SWMCNL’s work on large scale nuclear emergency response in food and agriculture was highlighted in the EGU session on ‘Geoscience problems related to massive release of radioactive materials by nuclear accidents and other human activities’.
[en] This manual provides details of the IAEA assessment and prognosis process, including its technical basis. It is complemented by a dedicated website, which provides access to assessment and prognosis tools and procedures. These tools provide a detailed technical workflow that is populated based on information submitted by the Accident State during a nuclear or radiological incident or emergency. This manual also serves as a companion publication to the Operations Manual for Incident and Emergency Communication (EPR–IEComm 2019), which contains a full documentation of the communication procedures for Contact Points identified under the Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident and the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency
[en] Exposure under accident conditions and potential exposure are regulated by the following Ukrainian documents: • Radiation safety standards of Ukraine (NRBU-97); • Radiation safety standards of Ukraine, addition: Radiation protection from sources of potential exposure (NRBU-97/D-2000); • General safety regulations of nuclear power plants (ZPBU-2008).
[en] Nuclear forensics is the process of comparing sample characteristics with existing information about the types of material the origin and methods of production of nuclear and other radioactive material or previous cases associated with similar material. Thus, nuclear forensics regarded as a new area of integrated science research that allows not only the identification of radioactive material (withdrawn from illicit trafficking or resulting from a nuclear accident), but also to trace the entire chain of related events - from source origin until to detection. Nuclear forensics is the examination of nuclear and other radioactive materials using analytical techniques to determine the origin and history of this material in the context of law enforcement investigations or the assessment of nuclear security vulnerabilities. In this activity, consolidation and assistance of all organizations that can be involved in nuclear forensics are necessary. Considering the scope of activities and responsibilities of the regulatory body, maintaining a register of all radioactive sources and nuclear materials, controlling the movement of such materials, authorizing activities related to their use, issuing export and import statements, as well as state supervision and control of activities and export-import operations are included in the responsibilities of the regulatory body. Thus the regulatory body makes an indispensable contribution for the purposes of nuclear forensics.
[en] All types of large reactors, subject of intensive development, are represented in SMR lines. A study of evolutionary (mostly water cooled), revolutionary (sodium or gas cooled), and exotic (salt or lead cooled) designs focused on safety characteristics and assessment against tightened-up requirements; notably robustness against malicious interventions and instability of societies. In general, lower power and operating pressure reduce the potential of catastrophic releases; increased safety margins and special design characteristics almost eliminate risk of severe core damage, triggered by RIA or SBO. Active systems and early operator actions are avoided; the need for a containment, and emergency planning is often negated. However, concept-specific accident scenarios such as fierce chemical reactions, flawed fuel addition, overcooling/freezing or air/water ingress deserve attention. Most developers claim that classical regulatory approaches to safety are inappropriate. However, relying on “one line of defense” and replacing active systems by passive, inherent mechanisms result in a shift of safety proofs to material properties, validity of experiments and computer codes, completeness of scenarios – under constraints of increased uncertainties. Furthermore, some reactor concepts are closely linked to elements of the fuel cycle, introducing new challenges. It seems to be evident that new regulatory concepts need to be developed - aiming to avoid unnecessary safety measures, while ensuring exceedingly high standards - and regulators to be educated, both in parallel with technological developments. (author)
[en] The regulations of Belarus relevant to the potential exposure comprise: • Safety requirements to ensure that the activities relating to the construction, operation and decommissioning of facilities are conducted to achieve the highest standards of safety that can be reasonably achieved; • Risk criteria which address the risk of mortality and of cancer from nuclear installations; • Dose and risk constraints for planned exposure situations and reference levels for emergency and existing exposure situations; • Emergency preparedness and response planning to mitigate the consequences of nuclear accidents.
[en] The SMR Regulators’ Forum was formed in 2015 to understand key challenges that are emerging in Small Modular Reactor (SMR) regulatory discussions. A 2-year pilot project was launched to understand each member’s regulatory views on common issues, to capture good practices and methods. This would enable regulators to inform changes, if necessary, to their requirements and regulatory practices. The following issues related to SMRs have been addressed: graded approach, defence in-depth and emergency planning zones. Key Conclusions of the Forum so far are that most national regulatory frameworks already enable applying a graded approach for all nuclear installations including SMRs. Accordingly, the Forum considers that the defence-in-depth concept and principles are still valid for SMRs. There is also a need to have a coordinated response should an accident in the plant challenge public safety and the environment. Therefore, EPZ should exist around SMR, even if possibly reduced regarding large NPPs. The paper identifies additional areas of interest for future work of the forum such as exploring where efficiencies can be gained by sharing of information and closer cooperation between regulators. (author)
[en] The paper provides proposals for enhancement of the regional radiation-monitoring and emergency response systems in the Russian Far-East in 2007. The system would provide prompt response to any radiation event to minimize the radiation impact on workers, population and the environment. Such a system had already been established in the the Russian Northwest.
[en] Norwegian-Russian regulatory cooperation in managing nuclear legacy at Andreeva Bay, a former Navy Base. Achievements of joint regulatory projects in Andreeva bay: • Mapping of the radiological situation at the site. • Radiation situation mapping of workplaces. • Enhanced internal radioactive dose assessment. • Emergency response training. • Enhanced visualisation for work planning. • Key challenges, solutions and next steps for joint efforts.