Results 1 - 10 of 337
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[en] It is the priority of first responders to minimize damage to persons and infrastructure in the case of a nuclear emergency due to an accident or deliberate terrorist attack -if this emergency includes a radioactive hazard, first responders require a simple-to-use, accurate and complete dosimeter for radiation protection purposes in order to minimize the health risk to these individuals and the general population at large. This work consists of the early evaluation of the design and performance of a biologically relevant dosimeter which uses DNA material that can respond to the radiation of any particle type. The construct consists of fiuorescendy tagged strands of DNA. The signalling components of this dosimeter are also investigated for their sensitivity to radiation damage and light exposure. The dual-labelled dosimeter that is evaluated in this work gave a measurable response to gamma radiation at dose levels of 10 Gy for the given detector design and experimental setup. Further testing outside of this work confirmed this finding and indicated a working range of 100 mGy to 10 Gy using a custom-built fluorimeter as part of a larger CRTI initiative. Characterization of the chromatic components of the dosimeter showed that photobleaching is not expected to have an effect on dosimeter performance, but that radiation can damage the nonDNA signalling components at higher dose levels, although this damage is minimal at lower doses over the expected operating ranges. This work therefore describes the early steps in the quantification of the behaviour of the DNA dosimeter as a potential biologically-based device to measure radiation dose. (author)
[en] Nuclear regulators should not actively take part in issues concerning nuclear energy policy. Their essential function is to contribute as effectively as possible to nuclear safety. The principal focus will be on the application of this concept since the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident. By using a comparative approach, the paper will address the measures taken by various countries to ensure the independence of their respective nuclear regulator, especially in light of the recent nuclear accident. (author)
[en] This work investigated the feasibility of using materials from personal electronic devices for optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) based retrospective dosimetry following a radiological accident or attack. The alumina porcelain substrates of surface-mount resistors were identified as the most sensitive and ubiquitous components for OSL analysis. Studies were conducted on resistor samples and cellular phone components in order to characterise the dose response and signal stability of the substrates. Anomalous signal fading was observed, and procedures were developed to correct for this. Dose reconstruction procedures were validated through trials in which cellular phones were affixed to an anthropomorphic phantom, irradiated with a gamma source, and analysed following delays of 4 to 21 days. Doses from 0.1-0.6 Gy were successfully reconstructed using the single aliquot regenerative-dose (SAR) protocol, incorporating a fading correction. It was concluded that resistors from cellular phones and other portable electronic devices should be considered for use as retrospective dosimeters in the case of unforeseen radiation exposures. (author)
[en] This paper introduces the characteristics and main evaluation of the comprehensive emergency drill of radiation accidents in Zhejiang province in 2018, as well as the situation setting of the emergency drill, and details the processes of on-site monitoring and handling during the drill. Considering the assessment of the practical actions taken during the drill from evaluation team, this paper analyzes the problems existing in each step during the emergency monitoring response, promotes some relevant suggestions to improve the response capability, which will provide useful experience for the future emergency monitoring and handling of radiation accidents. (authors)
[en] In 2015, the Asian Radiation Dosimetry Group established a regional network of biological dosimetry laboratories known as the ARADOS-WG03 (Working Group 03; Biological Dosimetry). A survey was conducted in 2017 to evaluate the capabilities and capacities of the participating laboratories for emergency preparedness and responses in large-scale nuclear and/or radiological incidents. The results of this survey were identified and assessed. The data provide important information on the current state of emergency cytogenetic biological dosimetry capabilities in the Asian region. (authors)
[en] Highlights: • A methodology for radioecological monitoring of the territory was developed. • Preventive radioecological assessment of the territory is proposed. • A degree of radioecological criticality of the territory was introduced. - Abstract: A methodology of a preventive radioecological assessment of the territory has been developed for optimizing post-emergency monitoring and countermeasure implementation in an event of a severe radiation accident. Approaches and main stages of integrated radioecological zoning of the territory are described. An algorithm for the assessment of the potential radioecological criticality (sensitivity) of the area is presented. The proposed approach is validated using data of the dosimetric passportization in Ukraine after the Chernobyl accident for the test site settlements.
[en] Health leaders have advocated for incident learning systems (ILSs) to prevent errors, but there is limited evidence demonstrating that ILSs improve cancer patient safety. Herein, we report a long-term retrospective review of ILS reports for the brachytherapy practice at a large academic institution.