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[en] According to the state-of-the-art trends in applied computational meteorology a robust CFD model has been developed in the IBRAE RAN. The V&V matrix of the ROUZ code contains various data obtained from real emergency cases as well as gathered from experiments conducted in urban conditions and at industrial sites, for example, experiment in Oklahoma City. It is demonstrated that ROUZ code satisfies the quality acceptance criteria defined by the expert community for models of the same class. (author)
[en] The Australian Health Protection Committee oversees national health protection priorities in: communicable disease outbreaks; chemical, biological or radiological incidents; mass casualty incidents; and deployment of Australian health teams overseas. The Australian Clinical Guidelines for a Radiological Event to complement existing national guidelines on chemical agents, anthrax, and smallpox. Other prompts included the need to revise the ARPANSA Guidance Manual, Medical Management of Individuals Involved in Radiation Accidents, 2000, and the requirement for specific therapeutic information regarding the indications and use of radiological decorporation agents held as part of the National Medical Stockpile. Matters identified by clinicians requiring specific guidance included: basic understanding of radiation; an approach to dose assessment; specific thresholds for initiating decorporation and other therapy; the role of gastric lavage, as contemporary practice considers this ineffective for other toxicological indications. rationale for, and detailed description of pulmonary lavage; advice on prenatal exposure to radiation; protocols for biodosimetry and other laboratory analysis. The objective was to produce a plain language guidance document for Australian clinicians on the diagnosis and management of radiation injury. It was to be based on evaluation of existing Australian documents, a literature review and consultation of appropriate specialists. Content areas included human health effects of radiation, scenario-based risk assessment and risk management, pre-hospital and hospital systems of care, management of specific injury types, radionuclide pathophysiology and decorporation protocols, biodosimetry options, individual psychological support 'and public health information, and Australian responsibilities under the Radiation Emergency Medical Preparedness and Assistance Network, of the World Health Organization. The range of resources utilised in preparing the guidelines, and the process of development and review will be described.
[en] This publication is aimed at doctors, paramedics and nursing personnel who especially in small communities and in developing countries, but also in highly industrialized countries can be faced with overexposures and have the task of taking the first decisions about the victims. It provides basic information about radioactivity, radiation and radiation accidents, radiation burns, external and internal contamination by radioactive materials, acute radiation syndrome and the late effects of radiation. In addition, a list of recommended equipment and medications sufficient to allow first aid treatment of acute radiation exposed or contaminated individuals is given. 7 tabs
[en] This report contains summaries of papers to be presented at the Topical Meeting on Radiological Accidents - Perspectives and Emergency Planning held at the Holiday Inn, Bethesda, Maryland, September 15-17, 1986. The meeting will review what has been learned from the past accidents involving nuclear material in order to foster effective emergency planning. The summaries have been compiled in one report to provide a basis for meaningful discussion and information exchange during the course of the meeting
[en] Purpose: To provide an overview of reported incidents that occurred in a radiology department and to describe the most common causal source of incidents. Methods: Incident reports from the radiology department at the University of the Ryukyus Hospital between 2008 and 2013 were collected and analyzed retrospectively. The incident report form contains the following items, causal factors of the incident and desirable corrective actions to prevent recurrence of similar incidents. These items allow the institution to investigate/analyze root causes of the incidents and suggest measures to be taken to prevent further, similar incidents. The ‘causal factors of the incident’ item comprises multiple selections from among 24 selections and includes some synonymous selections. In this study, this item was re-categorized into four causal source types: (i) carelessness, (ii) lack of skill or knowledge, (iii) deficiencies in communication, and (iv) external factors. Results: There were a total of 7490 incident reports over the study period and 276 (3.7%) were identified as originating from the radiology department. The most frequent causal source type was carelessness (62%). The other three types showed similar frequencies (10–14%). The staff members involved in incidents indicate three predominant desirable corrective actions to prevent or decrease the recurrence of similar incidents. These are ‘improvement in communication’ (24%), ‘staff training/education’ (19%), and ‘daily medical procedures’ (22%), and the most frequent was ‘improvement in communication’. Even though the most frequent causal factor was related to carelessness, the most desirable corrective action indicated by the staff members was related to communication. Conclusion: Our finding suggests that the most immediate causes are strongly related to carelessness. However, the most likely underlying causes of incidents would be related to deficiencies in effective communication. At our department, therefore, the primary action to prevent/reduce similar incidents should be ‘communication improvement’