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[en] Thermal properties play a crucial role in extracting economic performance and ensuring operational safety of nuclear materials and particularly nuclear fuels. A knowledge of variation of various properties with temperature is essential for design of fuel, developing fabrication routes, characterization and operation. Reprocessing of fast reactor fuels, whether by aqueous or non-aqueous route, also involves knowledge of thermal effects on various process operations. This is also true of nuclear waste immobilization. The talk will provide a broad overview of thermal studies that contribute to development of various stages of nuclear fuel cycle. (author)
[en] Decommissioning activities in the nuclear industry can often require personnel to undertake tasks manipulating plant, equipment and deploying tooling in close proximity to contaminated materials.
[en] In India, fuel acceptance criteria for normal operation, AOOs and accident conditions are part of the licensing basis. They are proposed by the licensee, and subject to detailed regulatory review. Requirements and guidance regarding these criteria are provided in the AERB regulatory documents, for example the AERB Safety Guide on Fuel Design for Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors, AERB/SG/NPP-PHWR/D-6 (under revision).
[en] The High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR), a graphite-moderated and helium gas-cooled reactor being able to get 950℃ temperature of the outlet coolant with 30MW of thermal power, constructed at the Oarai Research and Development Institute of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency is the first High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) in Japan. The purpose of the HTTR is to establish and upgrade basic technologies for HTGRs. The HTTR has accumulated a lot of experience of HTGRs' operation and maintenance up to the present time throughout rated power operations, safety demonstration tests, long-term high temperature operations and demonstration tests relevant to HTGRs' R&Ds. In the fiscal year 2018, we made effort to pass the inspection of application document for the HTTR licensing to prove conformity with the new regulatory requirements for research reactors that took effect since December 2013 in order to restart operations of the HTTR that stopped since the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake. This report summarizes the activities carried out in the 2018 fiscal year, which were the situation of the new regulatory requirements screening of the HTTR, the operation and maintenance of the HTTR, R&Ds relevant to commercial-scale HTGRs, the international cooperation on HTGRs and so on. (author)
[en] Two Generation III+ VVER-1200 units are planned to be built in Hungary. Investigation of core improvements made for the new reactor type has been done by the vendors. However, appropriate independent calculation tools are advantageous for the users, among others, for strengthening the safety level. Recently several new VVER reactors have been commissioned; among them three VVER-1200 units. To determine experimentally neutron-physics characteristics of those units, similar startup test programs were performed and extended with some new, unconventional measurements. Several experiments from the physical startup of a VVER-1200 were published recently. This contribution summarizes the experience gathered at MTA EK with the newly developed KARATE-1200 code system on the basis of the reactivity measurements obtained from the literature.
[en] For protection against major safety-related incidents in nuclear facilities, for example a plane crash on a radioactive waste storage facility or a conditioning plant, provision has to be made in the planning for structural, or other technical safety measures against potential accidents in order to limit the release of radioactive substances in the environment of the facility. The planning limits contained in § 104 of the "Radiation Protection Ordinance" (= Strahlenschutzverordnung (StrlSchV) /L-1/), "Limitation of exposure due to accidents", in conjunction with § 194 StrlSchV/L-1/, are to be taken as basis for this.
[en] Safety of the «Master» reactor plant in conditions of blocking flow section of a technological channel in the form of a Field’s tube is considered in the paper. The possibility of cooling a separate technological channel in the passive mode, considering heat-conducting zirconium matrix, is evaluated. It is noted that the project of the power unit with the «Master» reactor with 30 MW power has all the prerequisites for a successful application
[ru]В работе рассмотрена безопасность реакторной установки «Мастер» в условиях блокировки проходного сечения технологического канала в виде трубки Фильда. Выполнена оценка возможности расхолаживания отдельного технологического канала в пассивном режиме с учетом наличия теплопроводящей циркониевой матрицы. Отмечено, что проект энергоблока с реактором «Мастер» мощностью 30 МВт имеет все предпосылки к успешному применению
[en] The paper analyzes challenges caused by Covid-19 pandemic to ensure NPP safety, considers experience accumulated in nuclear energy industry for many years, which may be used in other critical industries in the context of socalled “Big Safety”. The paper provides for measures implemented at Ukrainian NPPs and NPPs of other countries by energy companies in the conditions of Covid-19 to preserve personnel health, which is the main task of ensuring safety. Introducing of the “Big Safety” concept (sometimes called “infrastructure safety”) related to big and complex systems as NPPs is analyzed by analogy with the “Big Data” concept. The study proposes the “Big Safety” concept characterized by systemic, informational and generic aspects. NPP safety is an example of the “Big Safety” since it comprises such aspects. The paper also covers the analysis of “Big Safety” components including functional, informational, physical safety, which are supplemented by infectious safety. It defines possibilities and options of NPP operational experience feedback for other critical systems in the context of “Big Safety”: experience and structure of a powerful system of standards and regulation of their requirements; implementation of modern electronic and information technologies (for example, FPGA) taking into account safety deficits; development and application of advanced systems and tools for monitoring and diagnostics of equipment and various NPP systems; use of independency, diversity and defense in depth principles; implementation of independent verification and validation principle. The paper covers the aspects of the Black Swan effect analyzed on examples of Covid-19 pandemic and Chornobyl NPP accident. The strategies of ensuring strength or mitigating Black Swan consequences are proposed. The recommendations for implementing “Big Safety” concept are formulated. (author)
[en] This short introduction outlines the specific importance of the coolant choice in the view of a safe, secure and economical operation of a fast neutron nuclear facility. Furthermore, it is discussed how the qualification of nuclear components and their operation is integrated in the regulatory framework, which forms the key to the enveloping safety analysis as an indispensable element for a nuclear safety demonstration. (author)