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[en] It is shown that it is possible to regulate the energy of each pulse of a powerful pulsed periodic reactor using an injector of relatively low power. The target in the reactor core generates the neutron pulses forced by the injector. The correlations for determination of the moment of injection are obtained. The equation connecting the mean reactor power, the intensity integral of the target and the scatter multiplicity of the pulse energy without injection is obtained. In addition to its function as a regulator, the injector plays the role of an auxiliary emergency unit. It is shown that using an injector provides a regime in which the reactor can generate power pulses in the form of periodic packets
[en] Highlights: • Assessment of AP1000 behavior in LBLOCA sequences. • AP1000 LBLOCA comparison against standard PWR-3L. • TRACE-DAKOTA application to BEPU analysis. - Abstract: The AP1000® is an advanced Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) design developed by Westinghouse which implements passive safety systems to provide core cooling in case of accident. The development of best-estimate codes produced the evolution of conservative safety analysis towards the so-called best-estimate plus uncertainty (BEPU) analysis in order to obtain more realistic results and larger safety margins. In this sense, Westinghouse used for AP1000 Large Break Loss of Coolant Accident (LBLOCA) the so-called Automated Statistical Treatment of Uncertainty Method (ASTRUM) which was developed to address this kind of BEPU analysis. This paper presents a verification of the AP1000 LBLOCA BEPU analysis by means of TRACE V5.0 patch 2 thermal–hydraulic code with the support of DAKOTA code for uncertainty calculations. The results obtained show lower values for the maximum PCT than the ones obtained by Westinghouse. In both cases the results show that AP1000 can mitigate effectively the occurrence of a postulate LBLOCA and to meet the 10CFR50.46 PCT acceptance criteria with enough margin
[en] Loss of coolant accident (LOCA) analyses for various configurations of safety injection system (SIS) are performed to optimize the emergency core cooling system (ECCS) performance for the Korean next generation reactor (KNGR). The KNGR is an advanced light water reactor (ALWR) adopting the advanced design feature of a direct vessel injection (DVI) configuration and passive fluidic device in the discharge line of the safety injection tank (SIT). To determine the feasible SIS configuration and the optimum capacities of the SIT and high pressure safety injection pump (HPSIP), licensing design basis and best estimate LOCA analyses are performed for the limiting large break and small break spectrum, respectively. The analyses results show that the four-train DVI injection with the current system design is a more feasible configuration than the other ones considered and the adoption of a fluidic device SIT enhances the ECCS performance for large break LOCA. For small break LOCA, in the case of cold leg break, the DVI4 configuration is better than other configurations and also meets the EPRI ALWR requirement of no core uncovery for up to a 15.24 cm (6 in) diameter small break. However, in the case of DVI line break, slight core uncovery is predicted and also the system behavior is significantly affected by reactor vessel (RV) downcomer modeling. Therefore, the DVI4 configuration is more feasible for KNGR ECCS performance, but further investigations are required to resolve the ECCS bypass issues for large break LOCA and to develop a proper RV downcomer model for analysis of DVI line break in small break LOCA
[en] Delayed neutron fraction β and prompt neutron generation time Λ were determined for the Miniature Neutron Source Reactor of Syria using noise analysis technique. Small reactivity perturbations, step-wise and impulse in time, were introduced into the reactor at low power level i.e. zero-power. Power and reactivity versus time were obtained. Using the generalized least square algorithm and transfer function analysis, measurement of both the delayed neutron fraction and the neutron generation time were made. The MNSR values obtained for the prompt neutron generation time and delayed neutron fraction are 78.3±1.3 μs and 7.94±0.11x10-3 respectively. Both measured values of β and Λ were found to be very consistent with previously measured and calculated ones reported in the Safety Analysis Report
[en] Highlights: • An emergency shutdown system for the TRR is carried out based on a heavy water tank. • The performance of the heavy water tank are carried out based on “first and equilibrium cores”. • Heavy water discharging flow rate is also studied in the current research. • Thermal flux in the radioisotope channel with and without the heavy water tank are studied. • A core with and without the heavy water tank for the cases of 5 × 6, 5 × 5, 5 × 4, and 4 × 4 fuel assemblies are investigated (for two types of fuel loading—first and equilibrium cores). - Abstract: In this paper, a neutronics design of the secondary (i.e., emergency) shutdown system for the Tehran Research Reactor (TRR) is carried out based on a heavy water tank design. The heavy water tank in a cylindrical shape is around the core, and calculations for the optimized radius and height of the tank are performed. The performance of the heavy water tank calculations are carried out based on two types of fuel loading, which are called the “first and equilibrium cores” of the TRR. For both cases, neutronics and standard safety analysis are taken into account, benchmarked, and described herein. Heavy water discharging flow rate is also studied in the current research, and the results are compared with the IAEA criteria. Moreover, thermal flux in the radioisotope channel with and without the heavy water tank (as the reflector) are studied herein. Specifically, a core with and without the heavy water tank for the cases of 5 × 6, 5 × 5, 5 × 4, and 4 × 4 fuel assemblies are investigated (for two types of fuel loading—first and equilibrium cores). Based on our optimization, the 5 × 5 fuel assembly, which is called “B configuration,” has better performance and efficiency than that of the other described layouts.
[en] Fuel management in PWR nuclear reactors is comprised of a collection of principles and practices required for the planning, scheduling, refueling, and safe operation of nuclear power plants to minimize the total plant and system energy costs to the extent possible. Despite remarkable advancements in optimization procedures, inherent complexities in nuclear reactor structure and strong inter-dependency among the fundamental parameters of the core make it necessary to evaluate the most efficient arrangement of the core. Several patterns have been presented so far to determine the best configuration of fuels in the reactor core by emphasis on minimizing the local power peaking factor (Pq). In this research, a new strategy for optimizing the fuel arrangements in a VVER-1000 reactor core is developed while lowering the Pq is considered as the main target. For this purpose, a Fuel Quality Factor, Z(r), served to depict the reactor core pattern. Mapping to ideal pattern is tracked over the optimization procedure in which the ideal pattern is prepared with considering the Z(r) constraints and their effects on flux and Pq uniformity. For finding the best configuration corresponding to the desired pattern, Cellular Automata (CA) is applied as a powerful and reliable tool on optimization procedure. To obtain the Z(r) constraints, the MCNP code was used and core calculations were performed by WIMS and CITATION codes. The results are compared with the predictions of a Neural Network as a smart optimization method, and the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) as a reference proposed by the designer.
[en] Highlights: • ROP aging challenge related to power derating is addressed. • ROP detector layout optimization and HSP re-classification are the options explored to mitigate power derating challenge. • Significant improvement in the ROP TSP value for an aged CANDU reactor can be realized from implementing these options. - Abstract: Over the past few years, Candu Energy Inc. (a wholly owned subsidiary of SNC-Lavalin Inc., which acquired the assets of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited’s Commercial Reactor Division) has been continuously developing and evaluating various options to improve the regional overpower protection (ROP) margin in aged CANDU 600 MW (CANDU 6®) reactors. This paper presents results from applying a couple of margin improvement options to a generic aged CANDU 6 reactor, namely ROP detector layout optimization and application of a revised handswitch position designation. Application of these options requires no change to the ROP analysis methodology, statistical approach or acceptance criterion. As such, any increase in ROP margin associated with these options carries little or no licensing risk and are not expected to require more than one standard outage to implement
[en] AMEBA is an Italian acronym which stands for 'alta moderazione e basso arricchimento' (high moderation and low enrichment). The AMEBA reactor is nothing more than a PWR which possesses very unusual values of both volumetric ratio moderator/fuel and U-235 enrichment of UO2. The possibility is shown of the technical realisation of a nuclear power plant equipped with an AMEBA PWR reactor. Among the most enticing properties of AMEBA are the following: self-shut-down in any abnormal condition, elimination of all need for control rods and boric acid dissolution in the water, absolute impossibility of reaching values of reactivity greater than a fraction of a dollar, intrinsic subcriticality, attaining to several dollars, in non-operative condition when the water is at ambient temperature, normal operation with a very small-sized pressurizer, self-start-up
[en] Highlights: • A fully-implicit high-order system thermal-hydraulics model for advanced non-LWR. • Applied fully-coupled JFNK solution scheme to avoid the operator-splitting errors. • The effects of different spatial and temporal discretization schemes are investigated. • High-order convergence rates of discretization schemes are verified. - Abstract: An advanced system analysis tool is being developed for advanced reactor safety analysis. This paper describes the underlying physics and numerical models used in the code, including the governing equations, the stabilization schemes, the high-order spatial and temporal discretization schemes, and the Jacobian Free Newton Krylov solution method. The effects of the spatial and temporal discretization schemes are investigated. Additionally, a series of verification test problems are presented to confirm the high-order schemes. It is demonstrated that the developed system thermal-hydraulics model can be strictly verified with the theoretical convergence rates, and that it performs very well for a wide range of flow problems with high accuracy, efficiency, and minimal numerical diffusions.
[en] Highlights: • Wilks’ method of uncertainty quantification was confirmed with a realistic problem. • Thermal-hydraulics modeling of a BWR spray cooling licensing experiment was used. • Critical points of the method (input distribution, sidedness, order) were assessed. - Abstract: Wilks’ formula has been frequently used to quantify the minimum amount of computational work required to meaningfully assess a model’s uncertainty, due to its nonparametric statistical nature that does not require knowledge of the distribution of the qualifying parameters of interest. Additionally, this method allows for any number of input uncertain parameters in the simulation model. This is favorable due to considerable computational expense of typical nuclear safety simulations, providing a quantifiable number of code executions that can statistically verify a desired level of safety. However, there are various existing definitions and uses of Wilks’ theorem in such scenarios, which the present study aims to investigate and quantify for a real thermal-hydraulics experiment used for reactor safety licensing. In this work, the U.S. NRC TRACE thermal-hydraulics code was chosen to simulate the separate-effect spray cooling tests performed by ASEA-ATOM for licensing of BWR SVEA-64 fuel. The computational model was evaluated by performing forward uncertainty quantification (UQ) using Dakota as the analysis tool and code driver on 31 identified sensitive parameters. Using this validated model, the TRACE model was sampled 1000 times with four different input parameter probability distributions to produce four model data sets to assess the applicability of Wilks’ theorem within a realistic nuclear safety analysis scenario. The obtained results compared various Wilks-defined ‘sample sizes’ according to one-sided confidence intervals for the 1st, 2nd and 3rd-order statistics, and with the two-sided confidence interval for the 1st-order statistics. The comparison demonstrated that Wilks’ method satisfies the reactor safety modeling requirements at the 95%/95% tolerance/confidence level as determined by the U.S. NRC.