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[en] A recurring theme throughout this conference Exploring 30 Years of Safety Culture, was the precise denotation of the concept ‘safety culture’. ‘Safety culture’ is composed by two nouns, the subject culture, (arguably, the manifestations of human intellectual achievement regarded collectively), and the qualifier safety (that is the condition of being protected from or not exposed to danger or risk). In the expression safety culture, safety is not used as an adjective proper, but as a modifier of the noun culture, denoting a culture designed to prevent injury or damage. This use, while common in the English language, is imprecise and definitively objectionable in other languages Unsurprisingly, the expression ‘safety culture’ is subject to subtle different interpretations, particularly in languages other than English. The lack of a globally agreeable and precise understanding on what safety culture really means has caused significant bewilderment and has challenged its operationalization. Perhaps due to vagueness on the precise denotation of safety culture, it was argued during the conference that the concept should be considered intangible and therefore unfeasible to regulate as a whole and thus unable to be subjected to legally binding obligations. This was always clear in the nuclear area (e.g. safety culture is not a legally binding obligation under the Nuclear Safety Convention). During the session it became apparent that this also seems to be the case in other applications.
[en] The IAEA’s Technical Safety Review (TSR) peer review service supports the enhancement of nuclear safety for nuclear power plants and is based entirely on the IAEA safety standards. The service addresses the needs of Member States at most stages of development and implementation of a nuclear power programme, including the conceptual design, pre-licensing and licensing phases, nuclear power plant construction, operation and plant modifications including periodic safety reviews and lifetime extension. The TSR peer review service encompasses six technical subject areas: accident management, design safety, national safety requirements, generic reactor safety, periodic safety review and probabilistic safety assessment.
[en] It discusses about new methodologies and practices in the area of Medical Physics as well as their applicability. The issue of quality in hospitals and clinics, as well as the care with respect to the equipment used in research or quality control tests are approached in Medical physics when encountering the laws and norms that are based on the methodologies to be applied. Care is taken to calibrate the equipment used, verify methodologies, and measure parameters according to the type of equipment to be evaluated. From quality control tests we can analyze the need for maintenance in the equipment for its adequacy according to laws and standards, but not the opposite, the requirement of who is doing the test in relation to the service provided. One of the modes is the ISO 9001: 20151 certification. (author)
[en] Significant scholarship has been devoted to safety culture assessment methodologies focusing on the development, delivery and interpretations of safety culture surveys and other assessment techniques to provide insights into the safety culture of an organization. The aim of the paper is to discuss the value of establishing mechanisms, immediately after an assessment and regularly between assessments, to facilitate a structured dialogue among leaders around insights derived from an assessment, to enable ongoing improvements in safety and security culture. The leader’s role includes both understanding the current state of culture, the “what is”, and creating regular, open and informed dialogue around their role in shaping the culture to achieve “what should be”. Meaningful improvements arise when leaders proactively nurture a healthy safety and security culture. The concept of ‘critical conversations’ is central to the engagement of leaders and provides a basis for leaders to use their own knowledge of the organization to make informed decisions on those activities that can best influence the culture. In addition to the process used to enable reflection, key enablers of a successful process will be discussed in the paper; the experience of Bruce Power will provide practical considerations for implementation. The aspects support the implementation of an integrated management system and include the adoption of a framework against which to establish a dialogue, regular engagement in reflexive ‘critical conversations’, leveraging existing oversight mechanisms, emphasis on limited, high visibility improvements, and exploring new approaches to understanding culture. To successfully navigate towards an ever-improving safety and security culture, leadership must create mechanisms to regularly discuss safety and security related cultural topics; be attuned to faint signals of cultural change and take appropriate action; and create the shared space and collegial atmosphere in which to engage in critical conversations about the state of safety and security culture. (author)
[en] The IAEA has introduced a methodology and an assessment tool – Systematic Assessment of Regulatory Competence Needs (SARCoN) – which provides practical guidance on analysing the training and development needs of a regulatory body and, through a gap analysis, guidance on establishing competence needs and how to meet them. The current publication provides information on the use of the SARCoN methodology to support the implementation of the IAEA safety standards for ensuring regulatory competence in respect of radiation facilities and activities. It is to be used in conjunction with IAEA Safety Reports Series No. 79. It can also be used in conjunction with IAEA TECDOC-1757 by regulatory bodies regulating both radiation and nuclear facilities.
[en] Conclusion: Focused attention to encourage and provide assistance to Member States in the application of the IAEA safety standards: – Complete revision of safety guides; – Development of associated technical documents and safety reports; – Continuation of CRP on Emergency Planning Zone for Small Modular Reactor Deployment; – Provision of tailored workshops, lectures and training; – Collaboration in activities related to technology development and deployment. • Implementation of Technical Safety Review (TSR) services. • Particular actions ongoing and planned to support design safety considerations for new technologies. • GIF participation in IAEA activities very welcome to effectively feed the development and/or necessary launch of IAEA documents. • IAEA pleased to cooperate in defined areas, such as reviewing consistency of GIF documents with IAEA safety standards.
[en] The three parallel sessions dedicated to approaches to safety of other high reliability organizations addressed many issues related to the attitude to safety culture in other organizations presenting high level of trustworthiness and commitment with regard to safety. What follows are the Chairperson’s summary views on the presentations and discussions. The nature of the subject necessarily implies that the issues could not be grouped in a logical order, mainly due to their diversity, and are therefore presented in the order of the presentations. These were important sessions as they provided many opportunities for the nuclear industry to learn from practical experience of developing safety culture in other high reliability organizations (HROs). The human and organizational aspects raised within the broad and varied range of presentations could occur in any organizational setting, including the nuclear industry. Major accidents and incidents in the nuclear sector may have been prevented if the industry had been more receptive to inter-industry learning opportunities presented in these sessions.
[en] This paper presents experience and insights of Tecnatom in the support of internal and external clients to develop a strong Leadership for Safety. Several cases are presented briefly: (a) The leadership and culture change activities for a utility, a radwaste company, and for Tecnatom itself. One important characteristic of the work performed is the detailed consideration of the underlying organizational culture that underpins the safety culture. Measurable improvements have been achieved and some of the key insights are shared in this paper. (b) The development and implementation of a leadership model with 17 competencies, including safety explicitly. One benefit of this model is that allows to perform a quantitative assessment of leadership effectiveness, something vital to be able to ensure that leadership development actions are truly supporting safety. The model uses an approach to development oriented to strengths and the use of companion competencies to further develop leadership. Moreover it aims to produce significant improvements on safety but also on performance, since both are not competing goals when the proper leadership model is selected. The training material prepared was shortlisted in the 2014 Nuclear Training Awards. (c) The design and implementation of a training development program on Safety Culture, and required competencies of Leadership, for Top Managers of the nuclear industry, as part of the project NUSHARE of the European Commission´s 7th research framework program. The program is sensible to the reduced time availability of Top Managers and uses a combination of learning approaches (webinars, micro-e-learnings, web meetings) that provides higher flexibility for the learner, but complemented with other proven methods (group dialog, journaling, mentoring, etc.) to ensure that the program is effective. All these experiences reveal that to improve the organizational Safety Culture we need to enhance Leadership for Safety and Performance. (author)
[en] With the application of digital technology to safety-critical infrastructures, cyber-attacks have emerged as one of the new dangerous threats. In safety-critical infrastructures such as a nuclear power plant (NPP), a cyber-attack could have serious consequences by initiating dangerous events or rendering important safety systems unavailable. Since a cyber-attack is conducted intentionally, numerous possible cases should be considered for developing a cyber security system, such as the attack paths, methods, and potential target systems. Therefore, prior to developing a risk-informed cyber security strategy, the importance of cyber-attacks and significant critical digital assets (CDAs) should be analyzed. In this work, an importance analysis method for cyber-attacks on an NPP was proposed using the probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) method. To develop an importance analysis framework for cyber-attacks, possible cyber-attacks were identified with failure modes, and a PSA model for cyber-attacks was developed. For case studies, the quantitative evaluations of cyber-attack scenarios were performed using the proposed method. By using quantitative importance of cyber-attacks and identifying significant CDAs that must be defended against cyber-attacks, it is possible to develop an efficient and reliable defense strategy against cyber-attacks on NPPs
[en] This document touches upon the legislative frame work for construction safety in the units under the regulatory purview of AERB and briefly covers the management issues, human, organizational and technical factors, safety measures in various construction activities, guidelines on personal protective equipment and selected case studies of accidents from which important lessons can be learnt