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[en] The management system safety and control area (SCA) covers the framework that establishes the processes and programmes required to ensure an organization achieves its safety objectives, continuously monitors its performance against these objectives, and fosters a healthy safety culture. Performance objectives: There is an effective management system that integrates provisions to address all regulatory and other requirements to enable the licensee to achieve its safety objectives, continuously monitor its performance against those objectives, and maintain a healthy safety culture.
[en] The government implements long term and systematic policies and strategies related to nuclear safety in accordance with the Nuclear Safety Act. For effective implementation of nuclear safety laws and various policies for safety regulation, a comprehensive mid term and long term nuclear safety plan is established and implemented every five years, along with a detailed implementation plan being established every year. The NSSC checks the implementation status every year in order to ensure its practical implementation. The Comprehensive Plan for Nuclear Safety is at the pinnacle of the national nuclear safety plan and establishes the mid term and long term policy direction for nuclear safety.
[en] CARPT technique is widely applied to studies on the dynamics of fluids and solids in the design phase of industrial equipment. This study describes the simulation, using MCNP code, of a CARPT-based methodology and uses a reduced-scale model of the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor as reference for the simulations. The goal is to evaluate the applicability of this methodology to the study of natural circulation passive safety systems in medium-scale experiments, such as the one modelled here, by comparing previously simulated trajectories for a radioactive particle and the trajectories calculated by the methodology under the same conditions. The methodology described was proposed by VIEIRA (2009) and has the advantages of being cost-effective and easy to implement, but it was initially designed considering small-scale experiments. Different configurations for the system were tested and correspondence between simulated trajectories and those reconstructed by applying the technique was analyzed for each of them; efficiencies and errors were also discussed. Comparison between simulated and reconstructed trajectories showed similar trends between them for each configuration, but the errors found were not negligible. Configurations’ parameters that promoted the best fit between trajectories were listed and possible improvements were suggested. This is the first study on the application of CARPT technique for research reactors safety systems. (author)
[en] Regulatory Framework - National Regulations: Decree on licensing of nuclear facilities; About 40 regulation 25 of which are related to the nuclear facilities and activities; All regulations are under revision to ensure conformance with new regulatory infrastructure and framework and to update in accordance with latest IAEA requirements; Five Guidelines for the applicants; About 25 internal procedures, including review and assessment guidelines and Project Management Plans for ongoing authorization projects. Safety Regime - Bilateral Peaceful Use: USA, Canada, France, South Korea, Russia, Argentine, Germany, China, Jordan, Japan. Multilateral Safety Related: Nuclear Safety Convention; Paris Convention on Liability; Joint Protocol Relating to the Application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention; Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency; Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident; Joint Convention on Management of Spent Fuel and Management of Radioactive Waste (signed but not ratified yet non technical reason). Multilateral Security Related: Treaty on the Non proliferation of Nuclear Weapons; Convention on The Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (ratification of Amendment to CPPNM is in - Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty - International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism. Safeguards: Agreement Between the Government of the Republic of Turkey and the IAEA for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with NPT; Protocol Additional to the Agreement Between the Government of the Republic of Turkey and the IAEA for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with NPT.
[en] The effectiveness of nuclear regulatory systems is enhanced by portraying transparency and openness in communicating all matters relating to safety to the public and stakeholders. This plays an important role in maintaining and enhancing public confidence on the safe use of nuclear energy for socioeconomic development. The regulatory body, in presenting the comprehensive safety status of nuclear installations, can use the outcome of integrated safety assessment mechanism which considers all important aspects of safety, with openness and transparency. This data driven process provides the public, relevant organizations and decision makers with comprehensive information on safety and regulatory decisions related to nuclear installations and is intended to provide a strong basis for, confidence in the regulatory decisions and information system. This publication provides practical information on the development of an integrated safety assessment mechanism by the regulatory bodies for nuclear installations. The integrated safety assessment model proposed in the publication comprises three steps: organizing input data for integrated safety assessment, trending and analysis, and development of overall results and conclusions.
[en] Nuclear security culture is an important component of an effective nuclear security regime, as it serves as a tool to improve the performance of the human component at nuclear facilities and organizations to counter both insider and outsider threats. Security culture connotes not only the technical proficiency of the people but also their awareness of security risks and motivation to follow established procedures, comply with regulations and take the initiative when unforeseen circumstances arise. A workforce made up of individuals who are vigilant, who question irregularities, execute their work diligently and exhibit high standards of personal and collective behaviour is able to achieve effective nuclear security. Building upon this understanding of the importance of a strong nuclear security culture, this publication provides practical guidance on how to implement a systematic nuclear security culture enhancement programme.
[en] The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s (NRC’s) regulatory framework for reactor oversight is a risk informed, tiered approach for ensuring plant safety as described in the NRC Inspection Manual, Chapter 0305 “Operating Reactor Assessment Program”, available on the NRC web page. There are three key strategic performance areas: reactor safety, radiation safety, and safeguards. Within each strategic performance area, there are cornerstones that reflect the essential safety aspects of facility operation. Within this framework, the NRC’s reactor oversight process (ROP) provides a means to collect information about licensees’ performance, assess the information for its safety significance, and provide for appropriate response by licensees and NRC.
[en] Regulatory Infrastructure Development - IAEA Assistance: Facilitating implementation of legal instruments; Develop internationally recognized safety standards - Safety fundaments, requirements and guides, - Guidance on establishing safety infrastructure; Provide services for implementation of safety standards - Peer reviews services; Provide quality support and assistance to Member States developing safety infrastructure - Capacity building (training courses, workshops, fellowships and scientific visits); Facilitating exchange of regulatory and operating experience; Coordinate and collaborate effectively with other organizations; Facilitating stakeholders engagement, communication and public understanding
[en] The IAEA’s statutory role is to “seek to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world”. Among other functions, the IAEA is authorized to “foster the exchange of scientific and technical information on peaceful uses of atomic energy”. One way this is achieved is through a range of technical publications including the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series.The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series comprises publications designed to further the use of nuclear technologies in support of sustainable development, to advance nuclear science and technology, catalyse innovation and build capacity to support the existing and expanded use of nuclear power and nuclear science applications. The publications include information covering all policy, technological and management aspects of the definition and implementation of activities involving the peaceful use of nuclear technology.The IAEA safety standards establish fundamental principles, requirements and recommendations to ensure nuclear safety and serve as a global reference for protecting people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation.When IAEA Nuclear Energy Series publications address safety, it is ensured that the IAEA safety standards are referred to as the current boundary conditions for the application of nuclear technology.Safe, reliable and productive performance in the nuclear industry results from a systematic consideration of human performance. A plant or other facility consists of both the engineered system and the human user of that system. It is therefore crucial that engineering activities consider the humans who will be interacting with those systems. Engineering design, specifically instrumentation and control (I&C) design, can influence human performance by driving how plant personnel carry out work and respond to events within a nuclear power plant. As a result, human–system interfaces (HSIs) for plant operators as well as the maintenance and testing of the I&C system cannot be designed by isolated disciplines.The focus of this publication is to integrate knowledge from the disciplines of human factors engineering (HFE) and I&C to emphasize an interdisciplinary approach for the design of better HSIs and consequently improved human performance in nuclear power plants. This publication provides practical explanations of the HFE processes and corresponding outputs that inform the I&C development.The framework outlined in this publication takes into consideration the I&C life cycle described in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SSG-39, Design of Instrumentation and Control Systems for Nuclear Power Plants, and the HFE programme guidance in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SSG-51, Human Factors Engineering in the Design of Nuclear Power Plants, for easing the inclusion and application of these two disciplines within an engineering design process. This publication specifically addresses points in the design process where collaboration between HFE, I&C and other important disciplines and stakeholders is paramount, and it identifies key tools and tasks for exchanging inputs and outputs between different design disciplines, particularly I&C and HFE.The primary intent of this publication is to provide Member States with practical information to improve their approach to I&C through the consideration of HFE. This publication may also be useful to design and technical support organizations, as well as to regulatory authorities, by providing background information to support their activities.
[en] An effective regulatory framework is essential to the success of a national nuclear power programme. The IAEA has developed the Milestones approach to help Member States embarking on nuclear power to understand and develop the necessary infrastructure requirements in a phased way. The regulatory framework is one of the 19 infrastructure issues that are described in the Milestones approach. The primary objective of this publication is to present the experiences of selected Member States that are in the process of building or expanding their regulatory framework for a nuclear power programme, including the challenges they faced. The publication also provides insights on IAEA safety requirements and guidance on establishing an effective regulatory framework with reference to the IAEA Safety Standards Series, the IAEA Nuclear Security Series, and IAEA Safeguards guidance publications. In addition, it demonstrates how these requirements fit into the overall development of a nuclear power programme through the IAEA Milestones approach.