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[en] One of the environmental effects of waste dumps is the emission of landfill gas. Several options to use that gas are available: (1) burn off, (2) use in a combined heat and power generating installation, (3) upgrading to natural gas quality, followed by supply to the natural gas distribution, and (4) use of the raw landfill gas in an industrial process. For one particular site in the Netherlands economic, energetic, environmental and quality aspects of those uses are calculated 1 fig
[en] Landfill, a matured and economically appealing technology, is the ultimate approach for the management of municipal solid wastes. However, the inevitable generation of leachate from landfill requires further treatment. Among the various leachate treatment technologies available, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are among powerful methods to deal with the refractory organic constituents, and the Fenton reagent has evolved as one promising AOPs for the treatment of leachates. Particularly, the combination of UV-radiation with Fenton's reagent has been reported to be a method that allows both the photo-regeneration of Fe2+ and photo-decarboxylation of ferric carboxylates. In this study, Fenton and photo-Fenton processes were fine tuned for the treatment of leachates from the Colmenar Viejo (Madrid, Spain) Landfill. Results showed that it is possible to define a set of conditions under which the same COD and TOC removals (approx 70%) could be achieved with both the conventional and photo-Fenton processes. But Fenton process generated an important quantity of iron sludge, which will require further disposal, when performed under optimal COD removal conditions. Furthermore conventional Fenton process was able to achieve slightly over an 80% COD removal from a 'young' leachate, while for 'old' and 'mixed' leachates was close to a 70%. The main advantage showed by the photo-assisted Fenton treatment of landfill leachate was that it consumed 32 times less iron and produced 25 times less sludge volume yielding the same COD removal results than a conventional Fenton treatment.
[en] Aquatic or land-based plastic pollution has raised serious concerns for ecosystems, and especially human and animal health worldwide. A variety of legislative instruments were developed to control, reduce, and manage the usage of plastics in day-to-day life to minimize the adverse outcomes brought by sending these plastic to landfill. Existing legislation heavily embraces levies, bans, and voluntary efforts through “reduce and reuse campaigns.” Thus, the present review highlights the pros and cons of the existing legislation and its implementation. It also assesses the need for the improvement of plastic legislation to better consider environmental and human health impacts. The paper proposes new efficient management strategies to aid in the development of plastic legislation which prevents increase of plastic pollution worldwide, the potential challenges that would arise from its implementation, and the mechanisms for overcoming these challenges. The paper proposes a conventional management strategy based on the current plastic management and legislation. It aims to improve the feasibility and effectiveness of the implementation of future plastic policies.
[en] For the understanding of contaminant transport and transformation through landfill liner soils, most models are proposed with one-dimensional solutions. However, for large-scale contamination analysis, the one-dimensional analytical equations are not valid owing to the restriction of contaminants moving in horizontal direction. Thus, semi-analytical solutions for two-dimensional transport and transformation of contaminants through soil media with the consideration of large-strain deformation have been developed. To achieve this, Gibson’s large-strain consolidation theory is applied to capture the deformation of soil media under loading, with self-weight effects being taken into account. Transport and transformation of dissolved or sorbed contaminates in fully saturated finite soil medias are captured by extending a well-developed advection-dispersion model in two-dimensional space. The proposed analytical solutions are validated through simulating the process of coupled transport-transformation process of contaminants and consolidation of a finite soil layer. Profiles of contaminant concentration for different cases have been compared and discussed. The resulting simulation shows that large-strain deformation would restrict the transport and transformation of contaminants significantly, in both horizontal and vertical directions. Parameter studies also indicate that, with the increasing depth of soil layer, the breakthrough time for contaminants increases dramatically; diffusion coefficients affect the two-dimensional distributions of contaminant concentration and fate of contaminant in layered soil significantly. The numerical findings of this study can provide proper suggestions for the design of landfill liners.
[en] Biological nitrogen removal by the use of Sequencing Batch Reactors (SBRs) is today an accepted and well proven model. The results of SBR performance on nitrogen removal have encouraged consultants, engineering companies and landfill operators to develop and build full scale SBR plants at a number of sites in Sweden. Two of these plants, Isaetra and Norsa, have been studied closely. The Norsa plant treats leachate at a controlled water temperature, while the Isaetra plant is exposed to temperature variation throughout the year. Both plants have very well proven nitrogen removal capacities, although winter conditions have an adverse impact on their performance. Typical nitrification efficiency is close to 100%, while the total nitrogen removal is about 90-95% under stable operation conditions. A good relationship between the nitrogen load and the nitrification rate has been observed at the Norsa SBR plant. The heavy metal content in the leachate is very low thanks to anaerobic precipitation inside the landfill into metal sulphides. The heavy metal content in the biological sludge is consequently also very low.
[en] A brief overview is given of the present, expected and maximal possible contribution of wastes and biomass to the energy supply in the Netherlands. Based on inventories of sectional flows and energy statistics, data on the mass flows, energy contents and energy production are compiled. 1 tab
[en] Leachate and solid waste samples from aerobic and anaerobic simulated landfill reactors operated with and without leachate recirculation were characterized in terms of metals such as Fe, Ca, K, Na, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, and Zn. Metal concentrations of aerobic landfill reactor leachate samples are always below the regulation limits. The higher concentrations in anaerobic landfill leachate samples decreased to regulation limits after the landfill becomes methanogenic. The effect of leachate recirculation is determined in anaerobic landfills more clearly than aerobic landfills. Metal precipitation resulted in a decrease in leachate metal content and an increase in solid waste metal content as expected. Result of the study show that the metal content of landfill leachate samples is not a major concern for both aerobic and anaerobic landfills
[en] The function of iron (ferric (Fe(III)) and ferrous (Fe(II))) in the hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) reduction mechanism by bacteria in municipal landfill leachate (MLL) was assessed. Evidence of an 'electron shuttle' mechanism was observed, whereby the Cr(VI) was reduced to trivalent chromium (Cr(III)) by Fe(II) with the resulting Fe(III) bacterially re-reduced to Fe(II). Typically, investigations on this electron shuttle mechanism have been performed in an artificial medium. As MLL comprises an elaborate mixture of bacteria, humic materials and organic and inorganic species, additional complexities were evident within the cycle in this study. Bioavailability of the Fe(III) for bacterial reduction, availability of bacterially produced Fe(II) for chemical Cr(VI) reduction and hydrolysis of Fe(II) and Fe(III) become prevalent during each phase of the shuttle cycle when MLL is present. Each of these factors contributes to the overall rate of bacterial Cr(VI) reduction in this media. This work highlights the need to consider local environmental conditions when assessing the bacterial reduction of Cr(VI)
[en] During the biological treatment of waste organic matter undergoes considerable changes. deg.radation and transformation, mineralization and humification take place. These processes correspond to different energy contents, which are reflected by the characteristic thermal behavior of the samples. Waste materials such as compost, municipal solid waste and waste from abandoned landfills have been investigated in this study to demonstrate the applicability of thermal methods in waste management. The use of the total sample, thus avoiding chemical extraction, has proved to be advantageous in the management of complex materials. Nevertheless, waste compounds were also characterized. TG/DTG and the curves of the CO2 ion current have been recorded in order to shed light on changes occurring in humic acids during composting. Thermal characteristics were attributed to different stages of decomposition of landfill materials. Further to the assessment of unknown landfills process control was carried out to evaluate the efficiency of aeration. A simple procedure that it not based on the comparison of a series of data but rather enables assessment of an individual sample is described for use in the evaluation of organic matter present in municipal solid waste
[en] The interest in the energetic use of landfill gas is rising in many European countries, although more and more waste is processed otherwise, e.g. by incineration. Still, both operational landfills as already closed dumps will produce landfill gas for at least two decades. Because of environmental reasons the produced gas must be extracted and burnt or neutralized. Under those conditions it appears that valorization of landfill gas is feasible and often also cost-effective. 1 ills