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[en] This viewpoint article offers the proposition that purpose-grown biomass buried in landfills constitutes a 'virtual' biofuel that is more practical, economic, and immediate than the use of actual biofuels from cellulosics. While not a permanent solution, it may be a useful bridge to the hoped-for era of actual biofuels prior to the time technology for economically converting cellulosics to actual liquid biofuels is realized
[en] Landfill leachate normally contains organic and inorganic pollutants in high concentrations. Electrochemical oxidation technique is an effective method to treat landfill leachate, have high efficiency in organic pollutants degradation and ammonia removal. In this study, a cost effective charcoal base metallic composite electrode to treat landfill leachate by electrochemical oxidation was fabricated. The effects of operational parameters such as supporting electrolyte, applied voltage and electrolysis time on the removal percentage of Color, COD, NH_3-N and total-P (PO_4"-"3) were carried out. The results obtained show that the removal percentage of Color, COD, NH_3-N and total- P (PO_4"-"3) are 70, 89, 73 and 80 % respectively. Under the optimum operating condition, sodium chloride concentration of 1.5 % (w/v), applied voltage of 10 V, operating time 180 min and C_6_0C"G_1_5Co_1_0"-PVC_1_5 electrode as an anode were used. (author)
[en] Landfill, a matured and economically appealing technology, is the ultimate approach for the management of municipal solid wastes. However, the inevitable generation of leachate from landfill requires further treatment. Among the various leachate treatment technologies available, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are among powerful methods to deal with the refractory organic constituents, and the Fenton reagent has evolved as one promising AOPs for the treatment of leachates. Particularly, the combination of UV-radiation with Fenton's reagent has been reported to be a method that allows both the photo-regeneration of Fe2+ and photo-decarboxylation of ferric carboxylates. In this study, Fenton and photo-Fenton processes were fine tuned for the treatment of leachates from the Colmenar Viejo (Madrid, Spain) Landfill. Results showed that it is possible to define a set of conditions under which the same COD and TOC removals (approx 70%) could be achieved with both the conventional and photo-Fenton processes. But Fenton process generated an important quantity of iron sludge, which will require further disposal, when performed under optimal COD removal conditions. Furthermore conventional Fenton process was able to achieve slightly over an 80% COD removal from a 'young' leachate, while for 'old' and 'mixed' leachates was close to a 70%. The main advantage showed by the photo-assisted Fenton treatment of landfill leachate was that it consumed 32 times less iron and produced 25 times less sludge volume yielding the same COD removal results than a conventional Fenton treatment.
[en] Highlights: • Pairing social and technical innovations improves organic collection programs. • Supportive infrastructure significantly increases household food waste diversion. • Norm communication increases separation behavior and reduces dropout. •Model predicting-fit best behavior-change tools is partially supported. • Norms are most effective on population perceiving low benefits and barriers. - Abstract: Cities around the world are under increasing political pressure to develop organics collection programs (OCP) to curb the flow of food waste into landfills, reduce the associated greenhouse gases, and generate compost or biogas. While OCPs tend to focus on infrastructure, they often overlook the linchpin role that household behavior change plays in the success of OCPs. The current research used a longitudinal field experiment (n=370) to test both the effectiveness of a new curbside OCP and new social innovations intended to stimulate pro-environmental changes in household behavior. The findings suggest greater participation levels occur by implementing both new supportive infrastructure (i.e., curbside carts and collection services), and innovations that target the social aspects of waste (i.e., communicating social norms of separation). The data also provide an opportunity to test new model for predicting the most efficacious behavior-change interventions based on population profiles. The results provide some support for the model; reducing barriers (i.e., curbside carts and collection) tends to help all population profiles, but norm communication increases participation more for the hypothesized profile than for other sub-groups.
[en] This paper aims at providing an overview of electrochemical oxidation processes used for treatment of landfill leachate. The typical characteristics of landfill leachate are briefly reviewed, and the reactor designs used for electro-oxidation of leachate are summarized. Electrochemical oxidation can significantly reduce concentrations of organic contaminants, ammonia, and color in leachate. Pretreatment methods, anode materials, pH, current density, chloride concentration, and other additional electrolytes can considerably influence performance. Although high energy consumption and potential chlorinated organics formation may limit its application, electrochemical oxidation is a promising and powerful technology for treatment of landfill leachate
[en] Aquatic or land-based plastic pollution has raised serious concerns for ecosystems, and especially human and animal health worldwide. A variety of legislative instruments were developed to control, reduce, and manage the usage of plastics in day-to-day life to minimize the adverse outcomes brought by sending these plastic to landfill. Existing legislation heavily embraces levies, bans, and voluntary efforts through “reduce and reuse campaigns.” Thus, the present review highlights the pros and cons of the existing legislation and its implementation. It also assesses the need for the improvement of plastic legislation to better consider environmental and human health impacts. The paper proposes new efficient management strategies to aid in the development of plastic legislation which prevents increase of plastic pollution worldwide, the potential challenges that would arise from its implementation, and the mechanisms for overcoming these challenges. The paper proposes a conventional management strategy based on the current plastic management and legislation. It aims to improve the feasibility and effectiveness of the implementation of future plastic policies.
[en] The discussion following presentations on financing landfill gas projects for power generation and the quality of landfill gas for utilisation in internal combustion engines is reported. Topics covered include the use of landfill gas in external combustion engines, the use of oil-free engines, such as gas turbines, and guarantees required by financiers. (UK)
[en] This report provides the results of the annual post-closure inspections conducted at the closed Corrective Action Units (CAUs) located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. This report covers calendar year 2010 and includes inspection and repair activities completed at the following seven CAUs: (1) CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill (TTR); (2) CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area (TTR); (3) CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes (TTR); (4) CAU 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (TTR); (5) CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill (TTR); (6) CAU 484: Surface Debris, Waste Sites, and Burn Area (TTR); and (7) CAU 487: Thunderwell Site (TTR).
[en] This paper studies the feasibility of using peat as a pre-treatment medium for landfill leachate and focuses on its capacity to treat boron and BTEX. The properties of three types of peat were investigated to determine which peat properties are best suited for adsorption. Alfred peat had the best performance in the batch adsorption tests and was studied further in a continuous flow column experiment using leachate from the City of Ottawa's Trail Road Landfill. Saturated and unsaturated conditions were studied to determine their effect on peat adsorption capacity. Excellent removal of BTEX (86 to 99%) was observed in all columns regardless of their saturation condition. Saturation conditions did not appear to have an effect on boron removal with both saturated and unsaturated columns exhibited an average removal efficiency of approximately 0.1 mg boron per gram of dry peat. (author)