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[en] The landfilling of organic waste will be prohibited in Sweden from 1 January 2005. Ash containing unburnt material in the form of organic carbon may be covered by the ban. This report provides a technical basis for the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency in its work on drawing up regulations relating to exemptions from the ban on landfilling organic waste. Approximately one million tonnes of ash a year are produced in Sweden, of which 500,000 to 700,000 tonnes are sent to landfill. This ash contains varying levels of unburnt material. The unburnt material consists of carbon in three different forms: organic, elemental and inorganic carbon. It is the organic carbon that causes an adverse environmental impact in landfills. On the other hand, there is a European standard for the determination of TOC (total organic carbon) in waste which gives the sum of organic and elemental carbon. The content of unburnt material or loss on ignition varies within wide limits, due firstly to different measuring methods and secondly to the design and operating conditions of the incineration plant. The proportion of unburnt carbon is often low in ash from CFB boilers, somewhat higher in ash from BFB boilers and often relatively high in ash from grate boilers and boilers based on powder burners. It is technically possible to reburn ash that has a high level of unburnt material. This may, however, lead to technical problems such as corrosion in the boiler, and reburning does not always result in a sufficiently low level of unburnt material
[en] Poland now face a very interesting discussion on modern waste treatment methods, although the waste problems are very oil. This paper presents a total waste management view from the formation process to recycling, utilisation and land filling. The average municipal solid waste (MSW) annual per capita generation in poland is 250 kg per person, which is half of the waste amount generated in norway and one third of the amount in Usa. The present low per capita generation, large variations in MSW properties and an expected growth in the standard of living make the decisions regarding future polish waste management systems very important. Waste management must be handled carefully to prevent a rapid growth of waste generation - this is the polish challenge, both mow and for the future. Three different possibilities for future waste management systems for rural areas, small cities and larger cities are discussed in the paper. 4 figs., 1 tab
[en] Proprietors of 14 landfill gas installations in the Netherlands attended the title workshop to discuss their experiences with the installations. The discussions were aimed at four subjects: (1) realized gas production compared to the prognosis; (2) control and optimization of the gas production; (3) problems with water during the production of the gas; and (4) management and maintenance of the landfill gas installations. The landfill gas sites in operation are in Veendam, Wijster, Hengelo, Borssele, Bavel, Spinder, Nuenen, and Linne. The landfill gas sites which are now closed are in Ouwsterhaule, Ambt-Delden, Maarsbergen, Vasse, Winterswijk, and Emmen. 6 figs., 3 photo's, 1 tab
[en] Highlights: • Before 2010 NORM waste is managed as non-radioactive, disposed in landfills. • After 2010 radiological impact of the management of NORM wastes must be assessed. • Quantities that can be disposed in hazardous or non-hazardous landfills are given. • Uncertainty analysis is included to provide consistency to the calculations. - Abstract: Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) wastes are generated in huge quantities in several industries and their management has been carried out under considerations of industrial non-radioactive wastes, before the concern on the radioactivity content was included in the legislation. Therefore these wastes were conditioned using conventional methods and the waste disposals were designed to isolate toxic elements from the environment for long periods of time. Spanish regulation for these conventional toxic waste disposals includes conditions that assure adequate isolation to minimize the impact of the wastes to the environment in present and future conditions. After 1996 the radiological impact of the management of NORM wastes is considered and all the aspects related with natural radiations and the radiological control regarding the management of residues from NORM industries were developed in the new regulation. One option to be assessed is the disposal of NORM wastes in hazardous and non-hazardous waste disposals, as was done before this new regulation. This work analyses the management of NORM wastes in these landfills to derive the masses that can be disposed without considerable radiological impact. Generic dose assessments were carried out under highly conservative hypothesis and a discussion on the uncertainty and variability sources was included to provide consistency to the calculations.
[en] Landfills are designed to contain waste and to provide protection against discharges of leachate into the environment. Main components of a landfill include a liner system, a leachate collection system, and a cover system. Traditional designs have typically incorporated clay soils for containment and sands with embedded piping for leachate collection. As a result of recent advances in design, geosynthetic materials are now widely used for components. While these materials present cost and feasibility advantages, they also pose significant challenges in stability evaluations, handing during installation, and quality assurance. This paper presents an overview of applications of geosynthetics in design and construction, including: Advantages, disadvantages, design criteria, possible economic benefits of various systems, and related construction considerations. 2 figs., 1 tab
[en] Highlights: • We developed a new hypoxic reactor system for remediating PCDD/Fs. • We demonstrated effects of compost on the degradation of PCDD/Fs. • We uncovered microbial compositions and dynamics during the degradation of PCDD/Fs. - Abstract: Compost-amended landfill reactors were developed to reduce polychlorinated-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in contaminated soils. By periodically recirculating leachate and suppling oxygen, the online monitoring of the oxidation reduction potential confirmed that the reactors were maintained under hypoxic conditions, with redox levels constantly fluctuating between −400 and +80 mV. The subsequent reactor operation demonstrated that PCDD/F degradation in soil could be facilitated by amending compost originating from the cow manure and waste sludge and that the degradation might be affected by the availability of easily degradable substrates in the soil and compost. The pyrosequencing analysis of V4/V5 regions of bacterial 16S rRNA genes suggested that species richness of the soil microbial community was increased by a factor of 1.37–1.61. Although the bacterial community varied with the compost origin and changed markedly during reactor operation, it was dominated by Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. The aerotolerant anaerobic Sedimentibacter and Propionibacterium spp., and the uncultured Chloroflexi group could be temporarily induced to a high abundance by amending the cow manure compost; the bacterial growths were associated with the rapid degradation of PCDD/Fs. Overall, the novel bioremediation method for PCDD/F-contaminated soils using hypoxic conditions was effective, simple, energy saving, and thus easily practicable.
[en] Radiotracer techniques by single well and double well borehole methods were used for determining shallow groundwater of sanitary landfill Bantar Gebang, Bekasi. Determination of direction and filtration velocity have been carried out by using single well borehole method, and other aquifer parameters have been done by using double well borehole method. Application of both methods can evaluate the direction, velocity and other parameters in which give the useful information for water resources and environmental management. Results of the study showed that the movement of the shallow groundwater of sanitary landfill for rainy season were from landfill area to the surrounding area and for dry season were from landfill area in Ciketing Udik village and for Sumur Batu and Cikiwul villages are influenced by hydrological condition of the location. The results of the other parameters showed that Ciketing Udik village was more potential area for the shallow groundwater resources. (author)
[en] The abrupt closure of a nearby, and historically utilized, Kirtland Air Force Base landfill imposed a multitude of solid waste management problems for the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL) research and development facilities operated by Lockheed Martin Company. Due to the close proximity of KAFB, SNL historically used KAFB's landfill for disposal of solid waste. Under this arrangement SNL paid little or no cost for disposal of its solid waste stream. The disadvantage was that KAFB personnel did not track waste volumes entering the landfill from SNL. On August 1, 1994 this all came to an end. KAFB, without advance notice, closed the sanitary waste and asbestos cells of the landfill. The rapid resolution of unique regulatory issues; the aggressive accomplishment of reviewing options and implementing transport, screening, recycling and disposal procedures; and the construction and operation of a model, on-site Solid Waste Transfer Facility (SWTF) can serve as a case study for servicing DOE solid waste management and recycling needs in a safe, compliant, and timely manor
[en] This Construction Quality Assurance (CQA) Report provides documentation that Bid Option 2 of the Y-12 Plant Construction Demolition Landfill 7 (CDL-7) was constructed in substantial compliance with the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) approved design, as indicated and specified in the permit drawings, approved changes, and specifications. CDL-7 is located in Anderson County on the south side of Chestnut Ridge, approximately 0.5 miles south of the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This report applies specifically to the limits of excavation for Area No. 1 portions of the perimeter maintenance road and drainage channel and Sedimentation Pond No. 3. A partial ''As-Built'' survey was performed and is included
[en] A numerical model, TOUGH2, was selected for describing liquid- and gas-phase flow in the unsaturated tuff underlying the TA-73 landfill. The model was selected primarily for its ability to simulate the significant mechanisms that may affect transport of contaminants through the vadose zone at the TA-73 landfill, including non-isothermal flow through fractured media. TOUGH2 is the best documented, verified, and validated model capable of performing the required simulations. The sensitivity analyses that were performed and describes in this report identified the input parameters that the selected numerical model is most sensitive to. The input parameters analyzed were saturated hydraulic conductivity, van Genuchten α and n, residual and saturated moisture contents, infiltration rate, fracture spacing and permeability, atmospheric pressure, and temperature. The sensitivity analyses were performed using a model grid that was designed to incorporate the regions in the landfill vicinity where contaminant transport is likely to occur and where the physical processes affecting flow and transport are the most dynamic. The sensitivity analyses performed suggest that the model is quite sensitive to a number of input parameters, including saturated hydraulic conductivity, the van Genuchten parameters α and n (for both the tuff matrix and fractures), fracture density and aperture, and atmospheric pressure. The results indicate that additional site-specific hydraulic properties and fracture data should be obtained before attempting to perform predictive, numerical simulations of gas- and liquid-phase flow beneath the landfill