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[en] Aquatic or land-based plastic pollution has raised serious concerns for ecosystems, and especially human and animal health worldwide. A variety of legislative instruments were developed to control, reduce, and manage the usage of plastics in day-to-day life to minimize the adverse outcomes brought by sending these plastic to landfill. Existing legislation heavily embraces levies, bans, and voluntary efforts through “reduce and reuse campaigns.” Thus, the present review highlights the pros and cons of the existing legislation and its implementation. It also assesses the need for the improvement of plastic legislation to better consider environmental and human health impacts. The paper proposes new efficient management strategies to aid in the development of plastic legislation which prevents increase of plastic pollution worldwide, the potential challenges that would arise from its implementation, and the mechanisms for overcoming these challenges. The paper proposes a conventional management strategy based on the current plastic management and legislation. It aims to improve the feasibility and effectiveness of the implementation of future plastic policies.
[en] The cultivation of energy crops on landfills represents an important challenge for the near future, as the possibility to use devalued sites for energy production is very attractive. In this study, four scenarios have been assessed and compared with respect to a reference case defined for northern Italy. The scenarios were defined taking into consideration current energy crops issues. In particular, the first three scenarios were based on energy maximisation, phytotreatment ability, and environmental impact, respectively. The fourth scenario was a combination of these characteristics emphasised by the previous scenarios. A multi-criteria analysis, based on economic, energetic, and environmental aspects, was performed. From the analysis, the best scenario resulted to be the fourth, with its ability to pursue several objectives simultaneously and obtain the best score relatively to both environmental and energetic criteria. On the contrary, the economic criterion emerges as weak, as all the considered scenarios showed some limits from this point of view. Important indications for future designs can be derived. The decrease of leachate production due to the presence of energy crops on the top cover, which enhances evapotranspiration, represents a favourable but critical aspect in the definition of the results.
[en] For the understanding of contaminant transport and transformation through landfill liner soils, most models are proposed with one-dimensional solutions. However, for large-scale contamination analysis, the one-dimensional analytical equations are not valid owing to the restriction of contaminants moving in horizontal direction. Thus, semi-analytical solutions for two-dimensional transport and transformation of contaminants through soil media with the consideration of large-strain deformation have been developed. To achieve this, Gibson’s large-strain consolidation theory is applied to capture the deformation of soil media under loading, with self-weight effects being taken into account. Transport and transformation of dissolved or sorbed contaminates in fully saturated finite soil medias are captured by extending a well-developed advection-dispersion model in two-dimensional space. The proposed analytical solutions are validated through simulating the process of coupled transport-transformation process of contaminants and consolidation of a finite soil layer. Profiles of contaminant concentration for different cases have been compared and discussed. The resulting simulation shows that large-strain deformation would restrict the transport and transformation of contaminants significantly, in both horizontal and vertical directions. Parameter studies also indicate that, with the increasing depth of soil layer, the breakthrough time for contaminants increases dramatically; diffusion coefficients affect the two-dimensional distributions of contaminant concentration and fate of contaminant in layered soil significantly. The numerical findings of this study can provide proper suggestions for the design of landfill liners.
[en] This study investigates the hydraulic performance and the fouling characteristics of a bench-scale membrane sequencing batch reactor (MSBR), treating mature landfill leachate under various time-based operating conditions. The MSBR system operated initially under a high-flux condition (Period 1) which resulted in a rapid trans-membrane pressure (TMP) rise due to intense fouling. Following the characterization of Period 1 as super-critical, the system was subsequently operated under a near-critical condition (Period 2). The overall filtration resistance analysis showed that cake layer formation was the dominant fouling mechanism during Period 1, contributing to 85.5% of the total resistance. However, regarding the MSBR operation during Period 2, adsorption was found to also be a dominant fouling mechanism (Days 1 to 47), contributing to 29.1% of the total resistance. Additionally, the irregular total resistance variation, which was observed during the subsequent operation (Days 48 to 75), and the respective filtration resistance analysis suggested also the formation of an initial sludge cake layer on the membrane surface, contributing to the 47.7% of the total resistance.
[en] The characteristics of Durio Zibethinus seed starch (DSS) that is used for landfill leachate treatment was investigated in this study. The DSS was extracted using dry milling (DM-DSS) and wet milling (WM-DSS) methods. The physico-chemical properties and surface morphology of the extracted starches were examined and analysed. Besides that, the efficiency of the extracted starch to remove colour, COD, suspended solid and turbidity were also evaluated and compared. Based on the results obtained, the WM-DSS showed better starch characteristics with high purity and smooth granule particles compared to DM-DSS. In addition, WM-DSS also recorded better leachate contaminants removal even at low dosage. Nevertheless, the performance of leachate contaminants removal for both extracted starch was very low. Thus, further chemical modification is required in order to improve the coagulation ability of the extracted starch. This finding indicated the potential of WM-DSS to be use as a coagulant aid for landfill leachate treatment. (paper)
[en] In situ degradation of organic contaminants by Pd and electro-generated H2 and O2 overcomes the drawbacks to traditional Fenton process, and conducting heterogeneous catalyst of FeMgAl layered double hydrotalcite (LDH) further improved the efficiency and stability. Using bisphenol A (BPA) as the model contaminants, 90% removal can be achieved with 1200 mg/L Pd/Al2O3 and FeMgAl-2. The reusability was satisfying due to the very limited leaching of Fe ions at 0.1 ppm level. FeMgAl also amplified the window of pH for Pd-catalyzed in situ advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) from 3 by homogenous Fe(II) to 3–7 by FeMgAl LDH. The COD of landfill leachate effluent of the MBR system removed by about 52.3% by this system by the initial pH was 5. Characterizations revealed the distinguishing features associated with LDH structure such as large surface area, good stability, basic character, and strong linage among active sites were accounted for the remarkable performances over a wide pH window. Five reactive intermediates were observed and multiple degradation pathways were proposed in Pd-catalyzed in situ AOP for the first time. Interestingly, because of the unique role of Pd catalyst, these degradation pathways were clearly distinguished from traditional Fenton or Fenton-like AOPs and may provide a new approach of in situ heterogeneous AOPs for refractory contaminants in future.
[en] Household wastes may constitute a vector of environmental contamination when buried, in particular through degradation and production of leachates containing significant trace metal (TM) concentrations that may constitute a serious risk to biota. The objectives of this study were to assess the bioavailability and transfer potential of various TMs present in water and sediments in a reservoir receiving landfill leachates. An active biomonitoring approach was adopted consisting of exposing naive laboratory organisms in cages deployed in the field. Aquatic insects such as Chironomus riparius larvae are good candidates since they represent key organisms in the trophic functioning of aquatic ecosystems. The results show that water, suspended particles, and sediments were significantly contaminated by various TMs (As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn). Their contribution to the transfer of TMs depends, however, on the specific element considered, e.g., Cd in sediments or Pb in both suspended particles and sediments. The internal fate of TMs was investigated according to their fractionation between an insoluble and a cytosolic fraction. This approach revealed different detoxification strategies capable of preventing the induction of deleterious effects at the individual scale. However, the accumulation of several TMs in C. riparius larvae tissues may also represent a significant load potentially transferable to higher trophic levels.
[en] Highlights: • Little is known about FEW impacts of managing food waste after it has been disposed. • Food waste management options have variable FEW impacts and opportunities. • Preventable and unpreventable food waste have different mechanisms of FEW impact. • A “food-waste-FEW systems” approach may maximize benefits across FEW sectors. • Characterizing FEW nexus impacts of wasted food is a priority for future work. - Abstract: Throughout the world, much food produced is wasted. The resource impact of producing wasted food is substantial; however, little is known about the energy and water consumed in managing food waste after it has been disposed. Herein, we characterize food waste within the Food-Energy-Water (FEW) nexus and parse the differential FEW effects of producing uneaten food and managing food loss and waste. We find that various food waste management options, such as waste prevention, landfilling, composting, anaerobic digestion, and incineration, present variable pathways for FEW impacts and opportunities. Furthermore, comprehensive sustainable management of food waste will involve varied mechanisms and actors at multiple levels of governance and at the level of individual consumers. To address the complex food waste problem, we therefore propose a “food-waste-systems” approach to optimize resources within the FEW nexus. Such a framework may be applied to devise strategies that, for instance, minimize the amount of edible food that is wasted, foster efficient use of energy and water in the food production process, and simultaneously reduce pollution externalities and create opportunities from recycled energy and nutrients. Characterization of FEW nexus impacts of wasted food, including descriptions of dynamic feedback behaviors, presents a significant research gap and a priority for future work. Large-scale decision making requires more complete understanding of food waste and its management within the FEW nexus, particularly regarding post-disposal impacts related to water.
[en] Soil-bentonite (SB) backfill is used extensively in cutoff walls at landfill sites; the walls are used as engineered geotechnical barriers for contaminant control. With increasing bentonite content, the coefficient of consolidation and hydraulic conductivity of the SB decrease. However, when the bentonite content is increased beyond a certain percentage, the hydraulic conductivity of the SB decreases very little. One of the aims of this paper is to introduce the concept of optimal bentonite content (OBC) for SB cutoff walls, in which the hydraulic conductivity (kh) is expected to be lower than 1 × 10−9 m/s. Additionally, the paper introduces a new index consolidation stress ratio, cvσ′, which is used to obtain the OBC. For this study, the initial water contents of the SB backfill material are selected to be 0.8, 1.0, and 1.2 times their corresponding liquid limits. The clayey soils are amended with different bentonite contents, 0, 5, 8, and 10% (by dry weight basis) for the oedometer tests. Then, piezocone penetration test (CPTU) is applied in SB cutoff wall at a landfill site in Jingjiang city, China. The results of the laboratory and field studies show that the introduction of a new index, cvσ′, is very useful for calculating the OBC and for evaluating the coefficient of consolidation and hydraulic conductivity of SB backfill. The advantage of SB backfill with OBC is that it can achieve the design requirement of very low hydraulic conductivity and improve the safety reserves.
[en] Coffee is perhaps one of the most vital ingredients in humans’ daily life in modern world. However, this causes the production of million tons of relevant wastes, i.e., plastic cups, aluminum capsules, coffee chaff (silver skin), and spent coffee grounds (SCG), all thrown untreated into landfills. It is estimated that 1 kg of instant coffee generates around 2 kg of wet SCG; a relatively unique organic waste stream, with little to no contamination, separated directly in the source by the coffee shops. The produced waste has been under researchers’ microscope as a useful feedstock for a number of promising applications. SCG is considered a valuable, nutrients rich source of bioactive compounds (e.g., phenolics, flavonoids, carotenoids, lipids, chlorogenic and protocatechuic acid, melanoidins, diterpenes, xanthines, vitamin precursors, etc.) and a useful resource material in other processes (e.g., soil improver and compost, heavy metals absorbent, biochar, biodiesel, pellets, cosmetics, food, and deodorization products). This paper aims to provide a holistic approach for the SCG waste management, highlighting a series of processes and applications in environmental solutions, food industry, and agricultural sector. Thus, the latest developments and approaches of SCG waste management are reviewed and discussed.