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[en] The cultivation of energy crops on landfills represents an important challenge for the near future, as the possibility to use devalued sites for energy production is very attractive. In this study, four scenarios have been assessed and compared with respect to a reference case defined for northern Italy. The scenarios were defined taking into consideration current energy crops issues. In particular, the first three scenarios were based on energy maximisation, phytotreatment ability, and environmental impact, respectively. The fourth scenario was a combination of these characteristics emphasised by the previous scenarios. A multi-criteria analysis, based on economic, energetic, and environmental aspects, was performed. From the analysis, the best scenario resulted to be the fourth, with its ability to pursue several objectives simultaneously and obtain the best score relatively to both environmental and energetic criteria. On the contrary, the economic criterion emerges as weak, as all the considered scenarios showed some limits from this point of view. Important indications for future designs can be derived. The decrease of leachate production due to the presence of energy crops on the top cover, which enhances evapotranspiration, represents a favourable but critical aspect in the definition of the results.
[en] This paper proposes a stress wave monitoring method for monitoring and locating leakage through the impervious layer at a landfill to resolve the “first pollution, then discovery” problem caused by the existing electrical monitoring method. The experimental results show that the linear distance to the geophones from the leak point should be less than 31.5 m to provide a well-defined rupture signal. The amplitudes of the stress wave signals generated during the yield and rupture stages of the high-density polyethylene (HDPE) film are more obvious and easily identified by the geophones; the rupture signal duration is approximately 100 ms, and the bandwidth is distributed within 0 kHz to 1 kHz. By studying the stress wave first arrival times calculated by the picking model, the average error of the picking model is approximately 0.35 ms, and the iteration of the model is ceased when the thresholds of the discriminating indices are 3.5 and 0.9. Experiments reveal that the positioning model should stop iterating when the absolute value of each element in the calibration vector is less than 140. The average positioning error is 0.248 m, and the maximum fiducial errors of the positioning model in the X-axis and Y-axis directions are 0.32% and 0.58%, respectively.
[en] In situ degradation of organic contaminants by Pd and electro-generated H2 and O2 overcomes the drawbacks to traditional Fenton process, and conducting heterogeneous catalyst of FeMgAl layered double hydrotalcite (LDH) further improved the efficiency and stability. Using bisphenol A (BPA) as the model contaminants, 90% removal can be achieved with 1200 mg/L Pd/Al2O3 and FeMgAl-2. The reusability was satisfying due to the very limited leaching of Fe ions at 0.1 ppm level. FeMgAl also amplified the window of pH for Pd-catalyzed in situ advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) from 3 by homogenous Fe(II) to 3–7 by FeMgAl LDH. The COD of landfill leachate effluent of the MBR system removed by about 52.3% by this system by the initial pH was 5. Characterizations revealed the distinguishing features associated with LDH structure such as large surface area, good stability, basic character, and strong linage among active sites were accounted for the remarkable performances over a wide pH window. Five reactive intermediates were observed and multiple degradation pathways were proposed in Pd-catalyzed in situ AOP for the first time. Interestingly, because of the unique role of Pd catalyst, these degradation pathways were clearly distinguished from traditional Fenton or Fenton-like AOPs and may provide a new approach of in situ heterogeneous AOPs for refractory contaminants in future.
[en] In this study, the efficiency of electrochemical oxidation to treat a sanitary landfill leachate was evaluated by the reduction in physico-chemical parameters and in ecotoxicity. The acute toxicity of the sanitary landfill leachates, before and after treatment, was assessed with the model organism Daphnia magna. Electrochemical oxidation treatment was effective in the removal of organic load and ammonium nitrogen and in the reduction of metal ions concentrations. Furthermore, a reduction of 2.5-fold in the acute toxicity towards D. magna after 36 h of treatment was noticed. Nevertheless, the toxicity of the treated leachate is still very high, and further treatments are necessary in order to obtain a non-toxic effluent to this aquatic organism. Toxicity results were also compared with others described in the literature for different leachate treatments and test organisms.
[en] Nanomaterials (NMs) commercially used for various activities mostly end up in landfills. Reduced biogas productions reported in landfill reactors create a need for more comprehensive research on these greatly-diverse microbial pools. In order to evaluate the impact of one of the most widely-used NMs, namely nano-zinc oxide (nano-ZnO), simulated bioreactor and conventional landfills were operated using real municipal solid waste (MSW) for 300 days with addition nano-ZnO. Leachate samples were taken at different phases and analyzed by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. The bacterial communities were distinctly characterized by Cloacamonaceae (phylum WWE1), Rhodocyclaceae (phylum Proteobacteria), Porphyromonadaceae (phylum Bacteroidetes), and Synergistaceae (phylum Synergistetes). The bacterial community in the bioreactors shifted at the end of the operation and was dominated by Rhodocyclaceae. There was not a major change in the bacterial community in the conventional reactors. The methanogenic archaeal diversity highly differed between the bioreactors and conventional reactors. The dominance of Methanomicrobiaceae was observed in the bioreactors during the peak methane-production period; however, their prominence shifted to WSA2 in the nano-ZnO-added bioreactor and to Methanocorpusculaceae in the control bioreactor towards the end. Methanocorpusculaceae was the most abundant family in both conventional control and nano-ZnO-containing reactors.
[en] Coffee is perhaps one of the most vital ingredients in humans’ daily life in modern world. However, this causes the production of million tons of relevant wastes, i.e., plastic cups, aluminum capsules, coffee chaff (silver skin), and spent coffee grounds (SCG), all thrown untreated into landfills. It is estimated that 1 kg of instant coffee generates around 2 kg of wet SCG; a relatively unique organic waste stream, with little to no contamination, separated directly in the source by the coffee shops. The produced waste has been under researchers’ microscope as a useful feedstock for a number of promising applications. SCG is considered a valuable, nutrients rich source of bioactive compounds (e.g., phenolics, flavonoids, carotenoids, lipids, chlorogenic and protocatechuic acid, melanoidins, diterpenes, xanthines, vitamin precursors, etc.) and a useful resource material in other processes (e.g., soil improver and compost, heavy metals absorbent, biochar, biodiesel, pellets, cosmetics, food, and deodorization products). This paper aims to provide a holistic approach for the SCG waste management, highlighting a series of processes and applications in environmental solutions, food industry, and agricultural sector. Thus, the latest developments and approaches of SCG waste management are reviewed and discussed.
[en] In this study, integrate electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) tests were carried out in a large-scale (5.0 × 4.0 × 7.5 m) MSW landfill cell to investigate the possibility of detecting perched leachate mounds, leachate level, and gas accumulation zones at wet landfills. The resistivity of both bulk waste and waste components at different moisture states were measured and the three-phase volumetric relationships of the waste pile were analyzed to better interpret the ERT test results in the large-scale cell. The following observations were given: (1) The relationship between resistivity and volumetric moisture content (VMC) of waste sample can be reasonably fitted by Archie’s law. The resistivity of waste components at a saturated state was all lower than 21 Ω m. (2) A significant amount of void gas was entrapped in the underwater waste, being 30.4–34.8% of the whole waste pile in volume. (3) Low-resistivity zones (< 5.0 Ω m) were observed in the waste pile being fully drained under a gravity condition, which was believed to be related to a perched leachate. (4) The average VMC values of the waste layer below and above the leachate level were in the ranges of 46.5–53.1% and 28.1–41.3%, respectively. (5) Irregular variations of high-resistivity zones (> 40 Ω m) observed in the underwater waste were associated with the accumulation and dissipation of gas pressure. It was found that the “gas-breaking value” in the gas accumulation zone was up to 10.5 kPa greater than the pore liquid pressure in the stable methanogenesis stage. These findings shone a light on the possibility of using the ERT method as an efficient tool for mapping the gas/leachate distribution and improving operations at wet landfills.
[en] With an increase of service time of landfills, a great amount of old landfills begin to leak and the leachate impairs the surrounding environment severely. Defining the flow of leachate is significant to the monitoring and restoration of the landfill. Field tests and laboratory tests are often used to investigate the leachate flow. However, many uncontrollable factors may affect the accuracy of field tests, and the application of field test results is usually limited. At the same time, it is difficult to simulate and monitor the migration process of leachate in real time in laboratory. To address this problem, a new physical simulating device is created to simulate the leachate migration under flowing conditions, and improved ERT device is designed to monitor the migration in laboratory tests. The results show that the improved ERT could delineate the migration range well in laboratory tests, providing a new method to investigate the leachate migration in laboratory test and providing a reference to the application of ERT in field tests. The relative variation rate of resistivity could reduce the influence of background, and is very suitable for time-lapse ERT. In addition, the effect of flowing rate, leakage rate, and time on the leachate migration is also investigated. The results show that the horizontal migration rate increases with an increase of flowing rate. The leakage rate has a significant influence on the vertical migration, but has limited effect on the horizontal migration. The curvature of migration front increases with an increase of flowing rate and time.
[en] Phosphorus (P) in sewage sludge (SS) has been a concern for decades. Sludge-borne P could exacerbate eutrophication problems once released to aquatic environments. Meanwhile, sludge-borne P would be a valuable alternative source to P minerals. A comprehensive understanding of the occurrence forms and fate of P in SS is required prior to the assessment of environmental implications of sludge-borne P. In the present study, we conducted a nationwide survey on speciation of phosphorus in the SS of China. The average concentration of total phosphorus (TP) in SS was 17.3 ± 5.1 g· kg−1, of which 67.1 ± 8.9% occurred as inorganic forms. Non-apatite inorganic phosphorus constituted the major component (77.6 ± 11.4%) of inorganic phosphorus, with the rest minor portion occurring as apatite phosphorus. Organic P accounted for 26.8 ± 7.9% of TP in SS, showing an average concentration of 4.5 ± 4.2 g· kg−1. Majority of phosphorus in the SS of China occurs as labile forms, suggesting that the environmental implications of SS disposal approaches should be assessed seriously. Sewage sludge produced by China contained 1.1 × 105 t of TP in 2016, and the amount accumulated to 1.0 × 106 t since 2001. Landfill sites are the single most important fate, receiving 8.1 × 105 t of sludge-borne TP since 2001. Land application and building materials are the other two fates of sludge-borne phosphorus. Spatial-temporal variations of phosphorus in the SS of China were also discussed. .
[en] Ammoniacal nitrogen is considered as one of the major pollutants of the leachate generated from the landfill site and has the potential to deteriorate the environment as well as health. Considering this, locally available agricultural waste, i.e., sugarcane bagasse ash, was employed as an adsorbent for the removal of ammoniacal nitrogen from landfill leachate. Batch-mode experiments were conducted to see the effect of dose (2–60 g L−1), pH (2–12), and temperature (20–60 °C) on ammoniacal nitrogen adsorption. Application of sugarcane bagasse ash showed 60% removal of ammoniacal nitrogen (50 mg L−1 strength) at an optimum dose of 20 g L−1 and 180 min of contact time with an adsorption capacity of 0.31 mg g−1. The Langmuir adsorption model was found to be best fit at 40 °C with R2 = 0.944, depicting a monolayer coverage of ammoniacal nitrogen onto sugarcane bagasse ash. According to the result, solute uptake rate could be well described by the pseudo-second-order model (R2 = 0.928), whereas the intraparticle diffusion model and Boyd plot indicated that the overall adsorption rate is governed by the external mass transfer. Thermodynamic studies revealed that adsorption is feasible, spontaneous, and endothermic in nature. Hence, the study shows that sugarcane bagasse ash could turn out to be a cost-effective adsorbent for the removal of ammoniacal nitrogen from leachate