Results 11 - 20 of 2042
Results 11 - 20 of 2042. Search took: 0.026 seconds
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[en] An alternative method is presented which couples a simplified model of waste degradation with a stochastic hydrological and contaminant transport model through the use of travel time distributions. This allows the complex effects of spatial heterogeneity within the landfill to be represented, along with other key variables such as moisture flow, waste composition and microbial activity. Illustrative examples o( the model's output are presented to demonstrate the effects of heterogeneity on leachate and gas generation
[en] In 1987 the Regional Autonomous Corporation of Risaralda, CARDER and the Risaralda Government, they signed a cooperation agreement, in order to endowing from sanitary landfill to the municipalities of the department. In the mark of this agreement it was carried out the design of Santa Rosa's sanitary landfill, that with near 50.000 inhabitants it is constituted in the third city of the department. This city generates some 25 tons/day of garbage that at the present time are heady directly to the waters of San Eugenio River. The present work contains the most important methodological aspects in the design of the sanitary landfill and some comments about the approaches ideal Vs real approaches of selection of places
[en] This paper studies the feasibility of using peat as a pre-treatment medium for landfill leachate and focuses on its capacity to treat boron and BTEX. The properties of three types of peat were investigated to determine which peat properties are best suited for adsorption. Alfred peat had the best performance in the batch adsorption tests and was studied further in a continuous flow column experiment using leachate from the City of Ottawa's Trail Road Landfill. Saturated and unsaturated conditions were studied to determine their effect on peat adsorption capacity. Excellent removal of BTEX (86 to 99%) was observed in all columns regardless of their saturation condition. Saturation conditions did not appear to have an effect on boron removal with both saturated and unsaturated columns exhibited an average removal efficiency of approximately 0.1 mg boron per gram of dry peat. (author)
[en] A study to determine whether Radiological Impact Assessment (RIA) is needed for landfill disposal of treated sludge (slag) from oil and gas industries has been carried out. Radioactivity level of slag and soil samples have been measured using gamma spectrometry system and its Total Activity Concentration (TAC) has been calculated. It was found that TAC (inclusive background) was within the control limit set by the AELB for example, 3 Bq/g as stipulated in LEM/TEK 58 (AELB, 2009). Therefore, as a result from this study, RIA is not required and the allocated area can be used for the landfill disposal of treated sludge (slag).(author)
[en] This paper describes the feasibility of an aerobic system (rotating biological contactor, RBC) and a biological anaerobic system (upward-flow anaerobic sludge bed reactor) at small scale for the treatment of a landfill leachate. In the first phase of the aerobic system study, a cyclic-batch RBC system was used to select perforated acetate discs among three different acetate disc configurations. These discs were chosen on the basis of high COD removal (65%) and biological stability. In the second phase, the RBC system (using four stages) was operated continuously at different hydraulic retention times (HRT), at different rotational speeds, and with varying organic concentrations of the influent leachate (2500-9000 mg L-1). Forty percent of the total surface area of each perforated disc was submerged in the leachate. A COD removal of about 52% was obtained at an HRT of 24 h and a rotational speed of 6 rpm. For the anaerobic system, the reactor was evaluated with a volumetric organic load of 3273 g-COD m-3 day-1 at an HRT of 54, 44, 39, 24 and 17 h. At these conditions, the system reached COD removal efficiencies of 62%, 61%, 59%, 44% and 24%, respectively
[en] The cultivation of energy crops on landfills represents an important challenge for the near future, as the possibility to use devalued sites for energy production is very attractive. In this study, four scenarios have been assessed and compared with respect to a reference case defined for northern Italy. The scenarios were defined taking into consideration current energy crops issues. In particular, the first three scenarios were based on energy maximisation, phytotreatment ability, and environmental impact, respectively. The fourth scenario was a combination of these characteristics emphasised by the previous scenarios. A multi-criteria analysis, based on economic, energetic, and environmental aspects, was performed. From the analysis, the best scenario resulted to be the fourth, with its ability to pursue several objectives simultaneously and obtain the best score relatively to both environmental and energetic criteria. On the contrary, the economic criterion emerges as weak, as all the considered scenarios showed some limits from this point of view. Important indications for future designs can be derived. The decrease of leachate production due to the presence of energy crops on the top cover, which enhances evapotranspiration, represents a favourable but critical aspect in the definition of the results.
[en] This study was designed to accomplish two objectives. The first was to provide to the US Air Force and the regulatory community quantitative procedures that they might want to consider using for addressing uncertainty and variability in exposure to better characterize potential health risk. Such methods could be used at sites where populations may now or in the future be faced with using groundwater contaminated with low concentrations of the chemical trichloroethylene (TCE). The second was to illustrate and explain the application of these procedures with respect to available data for TCE in ground water beneath an inactive landfill site that is undergoing remediation at Beale Air Force Base in California. The results from this illustration provide more detail than the more traditional conservative deterministic, screening-level calculations of risk, also computed for purposes of comparison. Application of the procedures described in this report can lead to more reasonable and equitable risk-acceptability criteria for potentially exposed populations at specific sites
[en] Methane is the chief component of natural gas, but also occurs naturally by the anaerobic decomposition of organic matter in swamp areas, at landfill sites, in fact at any location where organic deposits are present. Carbon dioxide is also produced by the decomposition of organic material as well as being the primary by-product of combustion. This article focuses on techniques to test a wide variety of combustible and toxic gases, including surface emission testing of landfill sites. Specifically, it describes the Methane Emission Monitoring System (MEMS) developed by Hetek Solutions Inc., whose primary objective is to to effectively locate surface emissions of methane gas from active landfill sites using flame ionization (FI) technology, and to plot the 'hot spots' using a Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS), which provides sub-metre accuracy for plotting emissions locations at landfill sites. The FI equipment is installed on all-terrain vehicles (ATVs). Several thousand kilometers of pipeline inspections have been performed in Alberta and Saskatchewan using this system in the mid-1990s. The mobile FI/ATV units have been redesigned for landfill gas emission testing, equipped with new DGPS equipment and interface software. They meet the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) drafted in the United States in 1996, which requires all landfill sites to be inspected for methane gas emissions. Using the FI/ATV combination, productivity over conventional walking inspection procedures increased some 400 per cent, while monitoring accuracy is equivalent to or better than those provided by previous conventional methods. The company can also provide the Optical Methane Detector (OMD) system using infrared technology. They are capable of performing 14,000 measurements per second, thus providing immediate response. To date, ATV emissions testing has been proven to be very effective in various types of gas detection. When interfaced with DGPS technology, computer-based evaluations and reports can be produced quickly to help regulatory authorities in calculating volumetric or weight equivalent emissions from landfill sources. They can also help landfill owners to pinpoint locations for extraction of landfill gas to supply utilities or on-site plants to generate power from low-BTU landfill gas. photos
[en] For the understanding of contaminant transport and transformation through landfill liner soils, most models are proposed with one-dimensional solutions. However, for large-scale contamination analysis, the one-dimensional analytical equations are not valid owing to the restriction of contaminants moving in horizontal direction. Thus, semi-analytical solutions for two-dimensional transport and transformation of contaminants through soil media with the consideration of large-strain deformation have been developed. To achieve this, Gibson’s large-strain consolidation theory is applied to capture the deformation of soil media under loading, with self-weight effects being taken into account. Transport and transformation of dissolved or sorbed contaminates in fully saturated finite soil medias are captured by extending a well-developed advection-dispersion model in two-dimensional space. The proposed analytical solutions are validated through simulating the process of coupled transport-transformation process of contaminants and consolidation of a finite soil layer. Profiles of contaminant concentration for different cases have been compared and discussed. The resulting simulation shows that large-strain deformation would restrict the transport and transformation of contaminants significantly, in both horizontal and vertical directions. Parameter studies also indicate that, with the increasing depth of soil layer, the breakthrough time for contaminants increases dramatically; diffusion coefficients affect the two-dimensional distributions of contaminant concentration and fate of contaminant in layered soil significantly. The numerical findings of this study can provide proper suggestions for the design of landfill liners.
[en] This book deals with definition of soil and scope of clean-up of soil, trend of geoenvironmental engineering at home and foreign countries, main concern of geoenvironmental engineering in domestic and abroad, design and building of landfills such as summary, trend of landfill policy in Korea, post management of landfill facilities, stabilizing and stability of landfill, research method and soil pollution source, restoration technology of soil pollution like restoration technique of oil pollution with thermal processing.