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[en] This publication comments the content of a report issued by RTE and the IEA on the conditions for a technical feasibility of scenarios exhibiting a high penetration of renewable energies (ENR) in France. It indicates the four conditions to be met for a security of supply and for the integration of very high proportion of renewable energies into a large scale electricity system: stability of the electricity system, supply security, operational reserves, grid development. These four conditions and the associated technical feasibilities stated in the RTE-IAE report are then discussed. The authors finally discuss whether a 100 pc renewable energy objective is actually to be wished.
[en] In recent years, annual electricity consumption in France amounted to around 470 TWh, 90% being decarbonized; at the same time, oil and natural gas consumption has been around 900 TWh and 450 TWh respectively. At present, electricity accounts for only a quarter of energy consumption. Energy savings alone will not be enough to move away from oil and natural gas: as equally anticipated for Germany and Great Britain, French reliance on electricity will have to increase significantly to replace oil and gas consumption. Various recent projections underestimate this growth. However, erroneous assumptions would affect the security of our energy supply and the daily life of the French people; the impacts on the cost of electricity and energy in general, and on the competitiveness of our economy would be considerable. In this position paper, the National Academy of Technologies of France (NATF) proposes a reasonable assessment of electricity demand in 2050. It points out that the European electricity system will be more vulnerable in coming years. It proposes some principles for the choice of economic data to be used in optimisation models. On the basis of these elements, it highlights some key points for managing change in the electricity system.
[fr]La consommation annuelle d'electricite en France a ete d'environ 470 TWh, decarbonee a plus de 90%; dans le meme temps, les consommations de petrole et de gaz naturel ont ete respectivement d'environ 900 TWh et 450 TWh. L'electricite ne represente aujourd'hui que le quart de la consommation d'energie. Les seules economies d'energie ne suffiront pas a sortir du petrole et du gaz naturel: comme le prevoient egalement l'Allemagne et la Grande-Bretagne, le recours a l'electricite en France devra croitre significativement pour se substituer aux consommations de petrole et de gaz. Diverses estimations recentes sous-estiment cette croissance. Or des anticipations erronees affecteraient la securite de notre approvisionnement energetique et la vie quotidienne des francais; les impacts sur le cout de l'electricite et des energies en general, et sur la competitivite de notre economie seraient majeurs. Dans cet avis, l'Academie des technologies propose une evaluation raisonnable de la demande d'electricite en 2050. Elle rappelle que le systeme electrique europeen sera plus fragile dans les prochaines annees. Elle propose quelques principes pour le choix des donnees economiques a retenir dans les optimisations. A partir de ces elements, elle souligne quelques points clefs de la conduite du changement du systeme electrique.
[en] This document is issued from France Hydrogene's Manifesto published in July 2020 updated with elements of the 'National Strategy to develop renewable and low-carbon hydrogen in France' launched in September 2020 by the French government. Achieving a successful energy transition is a crucial goal - Hydrogen enables us to turn this into an opportunity. Against this backdrop, France is well-positioned to take a leading role in this market by making the most of its existing strengths - as long as it embarks on a rapid and very large-scale program of investment in this field. Success depends upon the implementation of an ambitious strategy that is capable of rapidly mobilizing both public and private sector actors in a coordinated fashion. The pre-requisites for success: 12 recommendations for an ambitious national Plan: 1 - Coordinating the creation of a mass market to enable major manufacturing sector actors to leverage economies of scale; 2 - Help boost the take-up of fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV) and give potential users the tools with which to make informed decisions; 3 - Introduce changes to legislation; 4 - Incorporate the RED II directive into French law as quickly as possible; 5 - Ensure the traceability of the hydrogen being produced by means of a system of guarantees of origin; 6 - Establish a support scheme aimed at encouraging the production of renewable and low-carbon hydrogen as quickly as possible; 7- Establish the refuelling infrastructure required for the large-scale rolling out of hydrogen-fuelled transportation solutions; 8 - Create a framework whereby gas distribution networks can be used in the roll-out of hydrogen; 9 - Draw up and promote an ambitious strategy for the French industrial sector within the framework of the IPCEI on hydrogen; 10 - Maintain our excellent record in R and D and I, improve training and skills acquisition; 11 - Help the French hydrogen sector export to emerging markets; 12 - Implement a governance framework to organize the roll-out of hydrogen in France
[en] Environmental and anthropogenic changes in lakes have implications for fishers’ livelihoods in form of their forced migration and occupational change. Those advocating lake restorations often face a dilemma when asked if lake restoration will also restore the lost livelihoods. Answering such questions are difficult because most people are not programmed for frequent changes in their livelihood structures. Using the case study of Manchar Lake fishers who seemingly have faced such transition, this study brings insights on this broad question. We developed an in-person survey based on Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) to study 300 fishers’ responses to a hypothetical situation whereby they were asked to “Switch Back” to Manchar Lake assuming that it has been restored to provide various ecosystem services. Results show that complete transformation in the livelihoods of fishing communities has taken place with remarkable variation in their access to assets and livelihood outcomes. Despite increase in their access to physical capital such as school, hospital, roads, and markets, the communities are still vulnerable to income shocks and rarely enjoy privileges such as house ownership. The comparative state of current and past livelihoods and asset possessions determine ones’ willingness to switch back to fishing in Manchar Lake. Those who may have performed better in the said transition are less likely to return to their erstwhile occupations even if the lake is restored and vice-versa. We conclude that satisfaction with current livelihood outcomes is low and willingness to switch back to fishing in Manchar Lake is high since many had been poor performers in the transition. While the environmental rationale for the Manchar Lake’s ecological restoration already exists, this study suggests that there also exists a socioeconomic rationale albeit in a way that restoration also supports contemporary ecological services such as tourism. (author)
[en] This publication presents and comments various data and indicators related to or illustrating energy poverty in France in the second half of 2020. Different topics are addressed with, for each of them, a definition of the studied indicator, values and analysis of the indicator with, should the occasion occur, district maps, and additional information (source, scope, reading cautions). The addressed issues are indicators of quantification of energy poverty (assessment of the number of concerned households, household perception of energy issues), contextual indicators (energy prices, income poverty and poverty intensity, energy consumptions of the housing fleet, household energy expenses), indicators expressing the difficulty of households to pay their bills, indicators of follow-up of the various national financial arrangements
[en] Whereas the Sun send us every day six thousand times the energy we consume, the author wanders whether the solar revolution is the starting point of a radical change of our civilisation. Thus, he tells the story of a revolution to come, of the oppositions it already generates, notably in France. He shows how a new model of ecological capitalism could reconcile mankind and the living world
[en] Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa (with more than 214 million inhabitants in 2020) and, according to United Nations data, will be the third most populous in the world by 2050 (behind India and China). Thanks to its substantial oil resources, it is also one of the continent's leading economies and a major cultural influence in Africa. For all that, as Marc-Antoine Perouse de Montclos shows in this article, those assets may not be sufficient and Nigeria's Golden Age could be coming to an end. This is partly because of the violence and economic spoliation raging in some regions and, partly, the corruption and fraud with which many local authorities are riddled. And if the Nigerian authorities give the impression of acting and legislating to deal with these dysfunctions, that action is at times mere window-dressing and, ultimately, the legitimacy of democracy is ebbing away. lt is just a small step from here to believing in the possibility that the country may break up, as some observers have at times suggested, though, despite its current weaknesses, Nigeria is a country that has proved its resilience in the past and whose national unity remains solid. No doubt everything will depend in the end on the capacity of the political and economic elites to redistribute oil revenues and reduce social inequalities - an enormous challenge. (author)
[fr]Pays le plus peuple d'Afrique (plus de 214 millions d'habitants en 2020) et troisieme pays le plus peuple du monde derriere l'Inde et la Chine a l'horizon 2050 selon les Nations unies, le Nigeria est aussi une des premieres economies du continent grace a ses ressources petrolieres importantes, et il dispose d'une influence culturelle forte en Afrique. Pour autant, comme le montre ici Marc-Antoine Perouse de Montclos, ces atouts ne suffiront peut-etre pas et il se pourrait que l'age d'or du Nigeria touche a sa fin: d'une part, en raison des violences et pillages economiques sevissant dans certaines regions; d'autre part, en raison des comportements frauduleux et de la corruption qui gangrenent de nombreux pouvoirs locaux. Et si les autorites nigerianes donnent l'impression d'agir et de legiferer pour repondre a ces dysfonctionnements, l'action n'est parfois que de facade et, au final, la democratie perd en legitimite. De la a accrediter la these d'un demembrement possible comme certains observateurs l'evoquent parfois, il y a un pas: malgre ses faiblesses actuelles, le Nigeria est un pays qui a prouve sa resilience par le passe et dont l'unite nationale reste solide. Tout dependra sans doute, in fine, de la capacite des elites politiques et economiques a redistribuer la rente petroliere et a reduire les inegalites sociales - vaste chantier. (auteur)
[en] Post-accident recovery management is considered as a complex multidisciplinary process of multi-sectoral dimensions, with a priority expressed by NEA member countries to improve recovery preparedness. This could be achieved by producing guidance on how to develop a nuclear or radiological post-accident recovery management framework that can be adapted to national conditions. Capturing lessons learnt from the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident is of high added value to achieve this goal, although moving from a specific context to a generic one is difficult. This workshop, co-organised with the Japanese Nuclear Regulation Authority, provided a timely opportunity to engage in the in-depth brainstorming necessary for such a task. The workshop enabled the sharing of experiences and lessons learnt related to various aspects of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident recovery process, the collecting of insights and understanding of the current state of recovery in Japan (i.e. nine years after the accident) and of the extraordinary effort deployed by a wide spectrum of actors (e.g. local and national authorities, experts, research organisations, universities, public or private laboratories or institutes, non-governmental organisations, local stakeholders, nuclear operators, etc.). Strategies to help avoid hindrances and may accelerate recovery were discussed and gave food for thought to improve preparedness for post-accident recovery. The workshop findings highlight the importance of thinking in advance and broadly (i.e. in a holistic and multi-sectoral manner, balancing health, social, cultural, economic, environmental impacts) in order to ensure that the emergency response strategy could tackle the immediate situation and would not delay or impede the recovery process. As an overall conclusion, preparedness for post-accident recovery would benefit from adopting a comprehensive and operational generic framework covering key aspects such as public health, radiological monitoring and dose assessment, risk communication, decommissioning and environmental decontamination (both strongly associated with waste management), food and drinking water management, business continuity, the well-being of affected people and communities. A preparedness strategy should include actions targeting the resilience of societies and engaging local communities. The co-expertise process as defined by the ICRP could largely help in meeting this goal. Finally, the idea of exercising post-accident recovery management to practice and evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of stakeholder involvement, and/or of any other issues at stake for recovery, was introduced. All these findings are reflected in the generic framework for preparedness for post-accident recovery that has been developed by the Committee on Radiological protection and Public Health's Expert Group on Recovery Management. This framework will be released by the NEA at the end of 2021
[en] Whereas the evolution of the electric power distribution public network can play a major role for energy transition as it is mentioned in the French low-carbon strategy, this guide aims at describing and discussing the various domains of collaboration with local communities. For each of five chosen aspects, contextual elements and levers of action are overviewed. These five aspects are: energy sobriety and efficiency, the promotion of the integration of renewable energies and of territorial projects, the deployment and evolution of energy networks (electric power, natural gas, heat and cold), forecast and optimization of the deployment of electrical mobility over the territory, and the struggle against energy poverty.
[en] Much has been learnt in the ten years since the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake and the subsequent accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, but significant challenges still remain. This report presents the current situation at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant and the responses by Japanese authorities and the international community since the accident. It will assist both policy makers and the general public to understand the multi-dimensional issues stemming from the accident. These include disaster recovery, compensation for damages, nuclear safety, nuclear regulation, radiation protection, plant decommissioning, radioactive waste management, psycho-social issues in the community and societal resilience. Building on two previous reports released by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) in 2013 and 2016, the report examines the plant's future, that of the affected region and population, as well as outlining areas for further improvement and how the international community can help.