Results 1 - 10 of 91
Results 1 - 10 of 91. Search took: 0.021 seconds
|Sort by: date | relevance|
[en] Agroforestry is a multidisciplinary effort to increase the overall production through a combination of trees and crops. This study attempts to find out the multifunctional role of agroforestry, such as productive role, services role and farmer’s attitude towards agroforestry in District Dir Lower, Pakistan. For data collection, comprehensive questionnaire was used and 200 respondents were interviewed from 40 villages through random sampling. Results showed that people highly preferred productive value and moderately preferred services value of agroforestry. According to the respondents feedback 83.5% were owner of the land and cultivated the land themselves. The common irrigation system was rain fed (54.5%) and 50.5% of respondents were followed Agrosilvo system in the study area. The fast growing timber tree species (N=20-120) were Ailanthus altissima, Morus alba, and Populous nigra on their farmlands generating 20,000-40,000 PKR. (Pakistani rupees) income annually. From the fruit trees such as Juglans regia, Citrus species, and Prunus domestica income was 10,000-15,000 PKR annually. The majority 36.5% of respondents depended for fuel wood having PKR 5000-35,000. Different types of agricultural crops i.e. wheat, rice, maize, brassica and fodder crops along with farm trees were cultivated. Ecosystem services were reported by 89.6% respondents with positive affect. It was concluded that agroforestry found best than traditional agriculture system in income generation. The percentages of land use classes were correlated with satellite classified data and found significant correlation with agroforestry services. This study will help in future in implementing agroforestry system in uplifting the socio economic condition of the community in study area. (author)
[en] Anemia is one of the major causes of maternal mortality and morbidity across the globe, affecting around two-thirds of pregnant women in developing countries. The objective of this study was to synthesise study findings regarding the prevalence and determinants of anemia among women of reproductive age in developing countries. A total of 28 articles were reviewed by two authors for preliminary screening after removing overlapping information. Finally, 15 studies conducted from 2000 to 2015 were included in the review. The average prevalence of anemia was found to be 46.5% with a range of 18.1% to 75% in different studies. Factors such as increased maternal age, low education, high parity, poor socio-economic status, poor nutritional status, and certain diseases have been found as important determinants of anemia. There is a need to improve the socio-economic status, literacy, diet and general health of poor women in developing countries. (author)
[en] In the context of the UN-wide action plan for Chernobyl recovery, the IAEA has contributed through its technical cooperation programme to mitigate socioeconomic and environmental impacts of the accident in the areas of forest management, agriculture, food security and cancer treatment. (author)
[en] Objectives: Although a large number of studies have shown brain volumetric differences between men and women, only a few investigations have analyzed brain tissue volumes in representative samples of the general elderly population. We investigated differences in gray matter (GM) volumes, white matter (WM) volumes, and intracranial volumes (ICVs) between the sexes in individuals older than 66 years using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods: Using FreeSurfer version 5.3, we obtained the ICVs and GM and WM volumes from the MRI datasets of 84 men and 92 women. To correct for interindividual variations in ICV, GM and WM volumes were adjusted with a method using the residuals of a least-square-derived linear regression between raw volumes and ICVs. We then performed an analysis of covariance comparing men and women, including age and years of schooling as confounding factors. Results: Women had a lower socioeconomic status overall and fewer years of schooling than men. The comparison of unadjusted brain volumes showed larger GM and WM volumes in men. After the ICV correction, the adjusted volumes of GM and WM were larger in women. Conclusion: After the ICV correction and taking into account differences in socioeconomic status and years of schooling, our results confirm previous findings of proportionally larger GM in women, as well as larger WM volumes. These results in an elderly population indicate that brain volumetric differences between sexes persist throughout the aging process. Additional studies combining MRI and other biomarkers to identify the hormonal and molecular bases influencing such differences are warranted. (author)
[en] This study was conducted to propose some guidelines in the use of the proposed Mini-hydro Electric Power at Sipangpang Falls, Cabangahan, Cantilan, Surigao del Sur during the calendar year 2010. The study sought to assess the minihydro power plant project on the extent of influence on social services, economic development services, and environmental protection services. The contribution of the project in improving the quality of the lives of the people in the affected areas was assessed. The perceived problems in the implementation of the mini-hydro power plant were also examined. The study was descriptive research employing purposive quota sampling. Findings showed that the project was influential in the extension of basic services to the people. Community folks also believed that the project was influential in the extension of social services to the people. Respondents believed that the project had a strong influence on the environmental protection services of the local units and other concern agencies including government organizations. (author)
[en] To restore a situation, it is first necessary to ascertain a point of reference to the original circumstances. It was therefore necessary to clarify the farmers’ work organization and the structure of their farming before the nuclear accident, so that this information could be used as the ‘benchmark’ for restructuring farming in villages affected by the accident. Hence, interviews were conducted with people who were evacuated from a ‘zone in preparation for the lifting of the evacuation order’ in Kawamata town, Fukushima Prefecture. The objectives were to clarify rural and farming job structures and ascertain a course of action to restart/restore farming. Research identified the following general findings: most males of breadwinner age (i.e. old enough to earn money to support their family) are full time employees of companies and their wages match with average family expenditures; farming is generally undertaken by the older (retired) generation and for maintaining family farms that are assets; the only full time commercial farmers identified were tobacco growers, dairy farmers and floriculture growers; the number of full time males farming who are family breadwinners is very small; mostly farmers are of retirement age (which is about 60 years in Japan). Therefore, to restart/restore farming in this location, full time farmers are the primary actors and farmers of retirement age are supporting actors. (author)
[en] It is crucial to connect the dots between the climate and the sustainable development community and discuss how both climate and sustainable development alignment approaches are to be integrated. I4CE's 'Paris Alignment' framework can provide key insights for the development of frameworks to align with the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development: Alignment requires that both public and private actors look across three dimensions to assess whether their strategies and operations are both consistent with and best contribute to climate and sustainability goals: - A Comprehensive Scope of Action, - A Long-Term Time Horizon to Guide Impact, - An Ambitious Scale of Contribution. Alignment approaches should rely on ambitious national pathways or 'visions' of how long-term climate and sustainability goals could be met nationally and internationally. However, in practice national pathways are still insufficiently operationalizable and there is an urgent need to develop them. To overcome the inherent complexity of addressing both climate change and other SDGs simultaneously, the approach proposed by the 2019 Global Sustainable Development Report appears to be a step forward to guide the development of alignment methodologies. (authors)
[en] Green finance covers a fast-growing field, with undeniable potential to contribute to climate change financing. This potential has its limits and risks: to what extent are the instruments and discourse claiming to be sustainable finance greenwashing? Is the current trend promoting green finance, and driven by diverse actors, conducive to the consolidation or fragmentation of this new field? Are all types of organizations - public and private - justified in using and deploying green finance mechanisms? There are as many questions as answers currently being compiled. This study firstly introduces the various challenges experienced by green finance. Despite a solid growth, with a growing number of instruments and participation by diverse actors, green finance is limited by a lack of standardization and significant differences between the assorted markets and stakeholders. This situation requires consolidation efforts and an ambitious governance to tackle the global challenge of climate change. The EU has been leading this battle so far. Secondly, there is a need to outline the EU's vision and initiatives: the European Green Deal and the future European taxonomy demonstrate a strong normative and political commitment to climate. Turning this progress into an opportunity, not only at the European level but also at the global level, with shared outcomes, is however a work in progress, whose major challenges are identified here with recommended solutions.
[en] The improvements of the DeCART/MUSAD code system for uncertainty analysis of HTGR neutronic parameters are presented in this paper. The function for quantifying an uncertainty of critical-spectrum-weighted few group cross section was implemented using the generalized adjoint B1 equation solver. Though the changes between the infinite and critical spectra cause a considerable difference in the contribution by the graphite scattering cross section, it does not significantly affect the total uncertainty. To reduce the number of iterations of the generalized adjoint transport equation solver, the generalized adjoint B1 solution was used as the initial value for it and the number of iterations decreased to 50%. To reflect the implicit uncertainty, the correction factor was derived with the resonance integral. Moreover, an additional correction factor for the double heterogeneity was derived with the effective cross section of the DH region and it reduces the difference from the complete uncertainty. The code system was examined with the MHTGR-350 Ex.II-2 3D core benchmark. The keff uncertainty for Ex.II-2a with only the fresh fuel block was similar to that of the block and the uncertainty for Ex.II-2b with the fresh fuel and the burnt fuel blocks was smaller than that of the fresh fuel block.
[en] Coronavirus is associated with several infectious diseases that cause outbreaks in humans, such as SARS in 2002-2003 and MERS in 2012. In December 2019, COVID-19, promoted by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, was fi rst reported in Wuhan (China) as a new coronavirus disease. This outbreak quickly reached a pandemic status, affecting at least 185 countries and territories to date on all continents. The fi rst case of COVID-19 reported in São Paulo city (Brazil) occurred in February 26th. Days later, 182 suspected cases in 16 states were being monitored. In May 30th, 514,849 cases and 29,314 deaths were confirmed in Brazil comprising all 26 states and Federal District. The primary measure in order to contain the spread of SARS-CoV-2 involved social isolation. At that time there were not enough diagnostic tests to identify infected individuals and data were strongly associated with sub notifications. Nevertheless, the effectiveness of this measure largely depends on the individual’s social responsibility. This measure has a severe economic and social impact, as in other countries. In this review, we present an overview and scientific perspectives of the evolution of COVID-19 from Brazilian databases in which climate and economic situations differ from China, European countries, and the USA. (author)