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[en] This study focuses on the preference for and consumption habits of blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) in an emerging market. The objective is to analyze the determinants of blueberry consumption in Chile and evaluate to what extent traditional factors, such as income and price, are more determinant than other attitudinal factors and lifestyles. The Biobío Region (Chillán City), the second most important region in Chile. A face-to-face survey is applied to a random stratified sample. The survey collected information on adoption of healthy lifestyles, knowledge of blueberries as a natural functional food, some sociodemographic characteristics, and traditional economic factors. A Heckman model is estimated by the Maximum Likelihood. Results suggest that higher blueberry consumption is positively associated with the adoption of healthy lifestyles, a higher self-perception of healthy habits, and the recognition of blueberries as a natural functional food. The nutritional status reflected that people with a lower body mass index consume fewer blueberries. Finally, traditional factors, such as income and price, are showed to be more influential on blueberry consumption than attitudinal and lifestyle factors.Chilean consumers perceive blueberries as a healthy product, which can contribute to adopt healthier lifestyles. Domestic markets should be supplied with higher quality product taking into account that the demand is price inelastic. Branding and packaging with functional claims could be an efficient strategy to increase domestic consumption.
[en] Full text: Background: Double burden of malnutrition has been on the increase in Low and Middle-Income Countries (LMIC) in the world. Developing adequate policies to tackle this menace can be difficult, it is norm to focus on undernutrition and with little intervention on emerging overnutrition. This could be for lack of tools on how best to address contextual malnutrition profiles in sub-regions or countries. This comprehensive method can help to identify options of possible, plausible and feasible options for interventions, improvement to already existing intervention and to develop systematic solution to support reduction of both kind of malnutrition concurrently. Discussion: The paper proposes and illustrates the application of the mainstreaming nutrition initiative framework as a tool for the development of contextualised interventions that can effectively target double burden of malnutrition. Based on the tenets of the Mainstreaming Nutrition Initiative framework by Menon and colleagues (2011), the proposed conceptual framework advocates the integration of epidemiology, operational and political analysis. The subsequent implementation of contextual interventions. Applying this framework to the problem of double burden in two Nigerian states – Kebbi and Anambra State, it ensures that only solutions that can pragmatically address epidemiology, operational issues while gaining political support are advocated for. The added value provided by the framework lies in its comprehension, theoretical basis, underpinning pragmatic philosophy, diagnostic and exploratory nature and face validity. Conclusion: Contextual nutrition solutions have mostly applied at best two of the domains, the integration of the epidemiology, operational and political factors has not been widely used in practice. A conceptual framework that can assist in systematically developing contextual interventions may facilitate this. It also adds significant value to existing nutrition frameworks by incorporating multiple essential assessment domains and linking the analysis of these assessments to develop implementable and realistic solutions. Analytically, it’s use would aid the development of better solutions than one/two domains alone. The study encourages examination and utilisation of the tool by others in assessment and for guiding the development of malnutrition interventions for reduction and elimination of all kinds of malnutrition. (author)
[en] Agroforestry is a multidisciplinary effort to increase the overall production through a combination of trees and crops. This study attempts to find out the multifunctional role of agroforestry, such as productive role, services role and farmer’s attitude towards agroforestry in District Dir Lower, Pakistan. For data collection, comprehensive questionnaire was used and 200 respondents were interviewed from 40 villages through random sampling. Results showed that people highly preferred productive value and moderately preferred services value of agroforestry. According to the respondents feedback 83.5% were owner of the land and cultivated the land themselves. The common irrigation system was rain fed (54.5%) and 50.5% of respondents were followed Agrosilvo system in the study area. The fast growing timber tree species (N=20-120) were Ailanthus altissima, Morus alba, and Populous nigra on their farmlands generating 20,000-40,000 PKR. (Pakistani rupees) income annually. From the fruit trees such as Juglans regia, Citrus species, and Prunus domestica income was 10,000-15,000 PKR annually. The majority 36.5% of respondents depended for fuel wood having PKR 5000-35,000. Different types of agricultural crops i.e. wheat, rice, maize, brassica and fodder crops along with farm trees were cultivated. Ecosystem services were reported by 89.6% respondents with positive affect. It was concluded that agroforestry found best than traditional agriculture system in income generation. The percentages of land use classes were correlated with satellite classified data and found significant correlation with agroforestry services. This study will help in future in implementing agroforestry system in uplifting the socio economic condition of the community in study area. (author)
[en] Indeed due to global advancement, rapid technological innovation, and enhancing regional influence, supply chain (SC) has become an essential element. Now, competition has shifted from organization to industry level; any disruption can not only disturb organization but also affect the whole industry. Although Pakistan is agriculture land still industry sector is supporting more than half population, especially the automotive sector is the highest growing sector. Due to regional and economic shift toward China and India, this sector is facing numerous problems. Only thirteen large-scale automotive organizations are operational by creating collaboration among them many issues can be resolved. Supply chain collaboration has dogged the performance in various industries and in various regions. The aim of this study is to explore the potential benefits of supply chain collaboration toward achieving operational performance. Design/methodology/approach: This is an empirical investigation conducting among supply chain department of automotive industries in Pakistan. Data were collected from 232 members of the supply chain that include suppliers, manufacturers, and distributors. Factor analysis and multiple regressions through SPSS have been used for data analysis.The finding of this study reveals that two supply chain management approaches information sharing (IS), joint decision making (JDM) significantly effect, while Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) does not have a significant effect on operational performance. Research limitations: This study consists only three approaches, next study should include more approaches. Secondly, this study is limited to the automotive sector. Practical implications: [This study will help the managers of the automotive industry in making their operation smooth by applying information sharing, joint decision making, and electronic data interchange. Originality/value: First novelty of this study is the implementation of supply chain collaboration for developing country especially for Pakistan. Secondly, this study seed collaboration as communication and include all aspects of communication like formal communication, informal communication.
[en] Emerging shared mobility services are an opportunity for cities to reduce the number of car single trips to both improve traffic congestion and the environment. Users of shared mobility services, such as carsharing, ridesharing and singular and shared ride-hailing services, often need to be customers of more than one service to cover all their transport needs, since few mobility providers offer more than one of these services from a single platform. On the other hand, providers offering these services separately do not optimize costly resources and activities, such as the vehicles or the technology. Hence, the aim of this paper is to find synergies between the different app-based car-related shared mobility services that foster the development of new business models, to increase the profitability of these services. The research approach is built on the literature of car-related shared mobility services business models, supported by the review of certain outstanding services websites, and face-to-face interviews with users and drivers of these transport services. The analysis is presented by means of the Business Model Canvas methodology. Findings: Based on the synergies found, this paper suggests a few different approaches for services to share some resources and activities. This study identifies the common features of carsharing, ridesharing and singular and shared ride-hailing services to develop more profitable business models, based on providing the services in aggregated form, or outsourcing activities and resources. In addition, the implications of these proposals are discussed as advantages and drawbacks from a business perspective.
[en] The productivity of important grain crops wheat, rice and maize is adversely affected by various biotic and abiotic stresses. Weeds and phytopathogens are the major biotic stresses involved in biomass reduction and yield losses of these cereal crops. Various weeds compete with crop plants for natural resources viz. light, moisture, nutrients and space, and cause yield losses to agricultural produce. Weeds also increase harvesting costs and reduce quality of the farm produce. Weed management strategies include crop rotation, mechanical weeding or treatment with different herbicides. Although, sprays of different herbicides control various destructive weeds but their excessive use is environmentally unsafe and uneconomic. Indiscriminate use of these agrochemicals for weed control has resulted into considerable pollution of soil, groundwater and atmosphere. Therefore, effective biological weed management is an attractive approach for achieving the increased crop production to meet the food demands of the escalating global population. Many bacteria and fungi have been identified from the plant rhizospheres, which suppress the growth of weeds. The production of indole acetic acid, aminolevulinic acid, toxins and hydrogen cyanide has been correlated with the growth suppression of various weeds. Interestingly, inoculation with bioherbicides results in creation of biased rhizosphere leading to resource partitioning of nutrients towards growth stimulation of crop plants. Thus, inoculation of plants with bioherbicides has been found to increase germination percentage, seedling vigor, root and shoot growth, seed weight and increased grain, fodder and fruit yields. These environment-friendly biocontrol strategies for management of weeds are highly compatible with the sustainable agriculture.
[en] Lean Management has evolved into an inter-disciplinary subject with linkages to Operations Management, Organizational Behaviour, and Strategic Management. The objective of this paper is to review journal articles on lean published in major academic sources with a view to provide taxonomy of the field of lean management facilitating identification of the pertinent themes that exists in literature, while presenting an overview of the main definitions, chronological evolution, diffusion among developed and emerging economies. A review of literature has been conducted which includes 447 research articles in 51 Journals from Academic sources: Emerald Insight, T&F and Science Direct with main focus on lean management. Findings: An analysis of the surveyed literature brings to light an exponential increase in number of papers in the last 3 decades. The paper conducted study of lean in 3 phases i.e. Pre 2001, 2001-2010, Post 2010; enabling the study of maturity of lean. Observation regarding diffusion of lean globally reveals that lean has been adopted by both developed and emerging economies with noteworthy tilt towards its adoption in Asian countries in the recent past whereas initially it was confined to developed countries. New themes that have emerged such as Industry 4.0 and sustainability in the context of lean have been identified. Research limitations/implications: The aim of the paper is succinct representation of the current status and facilitating future research in the field. Originality/value: The present business environment with its rapid changes in market, rise in its economic, technical, and socio-psychological complexities has paved way for acceptance of lean as an operating strategy in a pervasive manner. The present study extends efforts of previous studies to analyse diffusion of lean globally, themes that have emerged and also includes more contemporary research with focus on its spread to emerging economies.
[en] This paper aims to explain the direct effect of supply chain integration on operational performance of manufacturing companies and the mediating effect of internal integration on the relationship between external integration and operational performance. Design/methodology/approach: From an organizational capabilities perspective we consider internal integration as a set of intra-organizational capabilities and customer integration and supplier integration as a set of inter-organizational capabilities. In the basis of a sample of 75 Moroccan manufacturing companies, we used PLS – Structural Equation Modeling to study the direct effect of customer integration, internal integration and supplier integration on operational performance of manufacturers and to analyze the mediating effect of internal integration. The results show that customer integration, internal integration and supplier integration are all positively and significantly related to operational performance of the manufacturer and internal integration mediates relationship between costumer integration and operational performance but not relationship between supplier integration and operational performance. Research limitations/implications: This study focuses on a set of best practices for integrating flows and business processes that industrial companies need to implement in order to create value for final consumer and show how to use internal integration practices to benefit more from external integration. Originality/value: The result of this study extends the developing body of literature on supply chain integration by analyzing the effect of interaction between internal and external integration on the operational performance towards an organizational capabilities perspective in a specific Moroccan industrial context.
[en] Determination of the wall variables (wall emissivities, wall temperatures, and heat fluxes) when the zonal model of radiation is used in numerical simulations of processes inside a pulverized coal-fired furnaces is described. Two methods for determination of the wall variables, i.e., a repeated run of numerical simulation (RRNS) and a temporary correction of the total exchange areas (TCTEA) are compared. Investigation was carried out for three values of the flame total extinction coefficient and four values of the initial wall emissivities. Differences of the wall variables were determined using the arithmetic means (AMs) of the relative differences. The AMs of the relative differences of the wall variables increased with an increase in the flame total extinction coefficient and changed a little with an increase in the initial values of the wall emissivities. For the selected furnace, the smallest differences of the wall variables were obtained for Kt=0.3 m-1 and ew,in=0.7. Although both methods can be used for determination of the wall variables, the RRNS method was recommended because the manipulation with files was easier for it. mmended because the manipulation with files was easier for it.