Results 1 - 10 of 144
Results 1 - 10 of 144. Search took: 0.024 seconds
|Sort by: date | relevance|
[en] This study analysed spatial and temporal changes in protected landscape of Ślęża Landscape Park in Poland, covering an area of 7724 ha. The main objective was to determine level of landscape change of the research area after Polish accession to European Union by comparing land-cover maps from 2004, 2009 and 2014. With the use of prepared land cover maps, we developed a database of the surface of the main elements constituting the background landscape of the research area. The data obtained made it feasible to assess the level of change in two different periods of time (2004 - 2009 and 2009 - 2014) by means of the landscape change index (LCI). This indicator is described by one value which is the result of all the change types taking place in the background landscape in a given period of time. Comparing the index of different parts of Ślęża Landscape Park helped to identify areas where the landscape changes were the highest and areas where the changes were hardly noticeable. The results show that when we take into account whole research area landscape changes are much more intense in the second of the analysed periods of time (2009 - 2014) (LCI=1,91) then in years 2004 - 2009 (LCI=0,71). The same analysis was done for each part of municipalities located within the Park. This made it possible to determine which part of the park is the most threatened by spatial transformations. In this context, it should be emphasized that the highest rates of landscape changes were recorded in the municipalities where the largest new residential area was located – in the municipalities Sobótka and Łagiewniki. Whereas municipality Dzierżoniów with a high percentage of forests inside the Park and unchanging area of arable land have the lowest landscape change index. (paper)
[en] Automatic translation: In the essay, instead of a conclusion, I offer several ideas that will be useful for the socio-ecological development of my home region. Rechitsa. To develop an excursion about Milograd culture (X century): start with a visit to the Rechitsa Museum of Local Lore with a visit to the settlement-parking (outside the village of Milograd). The attraction is that the art gallery contains works by the famous Alexander Isachev and no less interesting contemporary artist Yevgeny Shetikhin. An interesting project was carried out in a tour: an excursion motor ship in Pripyat. Why not the same to start up the Dnieper? With a visit to the village of Chernoe on the other bank of the Dnieper, where the healing spring beats?
[ru]В эссе вместо заключения предлагаю несколько идей, которые будут полезны для социально-экологического развития моего родного региона. Речице. Разработать экскурсию о милоградской культуре (X век): начать с визита в Речицкий краеведческий музей с посещением поселения-стоянки (за деревней Милоград). Привлекательность в том, что в картинной галерее имеются работы известного Александра Исачева и не менее интересного художника современника Евгения Шетихина. Интересный проект осуществлен в турове: теплоход экскурсионный по Припяти. Почему бы такой же не пустить по Днепру? С посещением деревни Черное на том берегу Днепра, где бьет целебный источник?
[en] The article presents the effects of research on models of high density housing. The authors present urban projects for experimental high density housing estates. The design was based on research performed on 38 examples of similar housing in Poland that have been built after 2003. Some of the case studies show extreme density and that inspired the researchers to test individual virtual solutions that would answer the question: How far can we push the limits? The experimental housing projects show strengths and weaknesses of design driven only by such indexes as FAR (floor attenuation ratio - housing density) and DPH (dwellings per hectare). Although such projects are implemented, the authors believe that there are reasons for limits since high index values may be in contradiction to the optimum character of housing environment. Virtual models on virtual plots presented by the authors were oriented toward maximising the DPH index and DAI (dwellings area index) which is very often the main driver for developers. The authors also raise the question of sustainability of such solutions. The research was carried out in the URBAN model research group (Gliwice, Poland) that consists of academic researchers and architecture students. The models reflect architectural and urban regulations that are valid in Poland. Conclusions might be helpful for urban planners, urban designers, developers, architects and architecture students. (paper)
[en] With the adoption and the ratification of the European Landscape Convention a legally justified need for a clear landscape policy was grounded in the European countries. It includes the elaboration of the new and the improvement of the existing legislative documents on landscape planning, protection and management. The aim of the particular study is to analyse the existing legislative documents in Latvia influencing landscape planning on different scales / and the implementation of the European Landscape Convention. The study emphasizes the complex structure of the Latvian legislative framework affected by the distribution of the normative documents under the various ministries. Therefore, the main problem is unclear responsibility levels and organizational system for solving the issues regarding landscape planning, protection and management. Thus the various discussions between the involved disciplines and responsible institutions are arising. Two groups of the legislative documents influencing the implementation of the landscape policy in Latvia are detected within the study. The first group is strategic documents determining main landscape planning principles and directions at European, national, regional and professional or sectoral level. The second group is operational documents providing a set of actions for the landscape planning, protection and management at the local or the municipality level. The study concludes that operational documents developed by the municipalities are in high importance because of their direct influence on the landscape planning in Latvia. This often leads to the different landscape planning requirements included in the normative documents of the neighbouring municipalities, although the spatial and ecological borders of the visual landscape do not fit with the formal borders of the municipalities. Thus, it is essential to develop the common principles and actions that would be incumbent on all municipalities to provide the landscape integrity and to protect its values according to the main principles defined in the European Landscape Convention. (paper)
[en] Fracture testing standards of ASTM and ISO recommend expressions for plastic η factor of various fracture test specimen geometries to evaluate the fracture behavior of materials. These are intended for homogenous specimens, but according to ISO 15653, it can be extended for weldments up to a strength mismatch ratio (M) of 1.25. In practice, M > 1.25 is encountered in many applications. In the present study, η factor has been evaluated for welded compact tension specimens using a limit load-based approach. The η factors obtained using this approach for homogenous specimens with elastic–perfectly plastic material model are found to be within ± 4% of those from the ASTM E 1820-17a, thereby validating the procedure. For welds, the limit load is obtained from nonlinear (elastic–plastic) FE simulations. η factors for specimens with various crack lengths (a), weld width (h) and strength mismatch have been evaluated and found to be significantly influenced by these parameters. For M > 1.25, the estimated η values were found to be ~ 16% lower compared to that from the ASTM E 1820-17a. Thus, the use of the η values from the proposed method provides a conservative estimate of J–R curve for the welds. Further, it has been observed that depending on the slope of the blunting line, the JIc value may vary significantly with the estimated η values.
[en] The article shows the problems of financing the children's health campaigns, and presents the directions of modernization of the children's health camp, located in the Chelyabinsk region
[ru]В статье показаны проблемы финансирования детских оздоровительных кампаний и представлены направления модернизации детского оздоровительного лагеря, находящегося в Челябинской области
[en] This research intends to extend the knowledge about the groundwater of the Serra Grande aquifer, specifically, in the northeastern portion of the Parnaíba sedimentary basin, aiming to identify the various subsystems and their interactions, responsible for the characteristics of the aquifer system. The study began by surveying of existing knowledge through bibliographical research about geological and geometrical characterization of this portion of the basin. 80 electric vertical soundings were performed, which investigated up to 750 m deep, and detected two aquifer zones separated by a resistive layer. The interpretations of these surveys estimate that the more frequent saturated thicknesses of the aquifer are about 300 m. The gravimetric survey held 500 new stations and found that the basin framework is quite irregular, with several positive and negative anomalies, similar to those present in grabens and horsts systems, related to the Transbrasilian lineament. The potentiometric map was generated by ordinary kriging, using the linear model (isotropic and anisotropic) and using parameters defined by variograms fitted to the spherical model (anisotropic). Comparing the estimated values with those measured, it was found that the kind of theoretical model employed does not interfere in the result. The transmissivities determined for the aquifer from the interpretation of 58 pumping tests presented large variation, with values ranging from 3.55 x 10-2 to 1.01 x 10-1 m2/h. The water balance was used to estimate the amount of water available for groundwater recharge, that was valued at 2.8 x 10-9 m3, representing about 22% of the annual average rainfall in the area. The permanent reserve of Serra Grande aquifer was estimated at 113 x 109 m3, while its potentiality or exploitable reserve is about 11.6 x 109 m3/year. The systematic view, which is the basis of this study, improved the scientific understanding of the aquifer, without which is not possible to manage it properly. It is hoped that the presented data will improve the proper use of water resources in the area, and consequently, the sustainable socioeconomic development of the region. (author)
[en] Environmental and anthropogenic changes in lakes have implications for fishers’ livelihoods in form of their forced migration and occupational change. Those advocating lake restorations often face a dilemma when asked if lake restoration will also restore the lost livelihoods. Answering such questions are difficult because most people are not programmed for frequent changes in their livelihood structures. Using the case study of Manchar Lake fishers who seemingly have faced such transition, this study brings insights on this broad question. We developed an in-person survey based on Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) to study 300 fishers’ responses to a hypothetical situation whereby they were asked to “Switch Back” to Manchar Lake assuming that it has been restored to provide various ecosystem services. Results show that complete transformation in the livelihoods of fishing communities has taken place with remarkable variation in their access to assets and livelihood outcomes. Despite increase in their access to physical capital such as school, hospital, roads, and markets, the communities are still vulnerable to income shocks and rarely enjoy privileges such as house ownership. The comparative state of current and past livelihoods and asset possessions determine ones’ willingness to switch back to fishing in Manchar Lake. Those who may have performed better in the said transition are less likely to return to their erstwhile occupations even if the lake is restored and vice-versa. We conclude that satisfaction with current livelihood outcomes is low and willingness to switch back to fishing in Manchar Lake is high since many had been poor performers in the transition. While the environmental rationale for the Manchar Lake’s ecological restoration already exists, this study suggests that there also exists a socioeconomic rationale albeit in a way that restoration also supports contemporary ecological services such as tourism. (author)
[en] Objectives: This study aims to test the association between diabetes and tuberculosis. Methods: It is a matched case control study conducted in tertiary care hospitals in 2019-2020. Cases and controls were 144 each, selected on the basis of an odds ratio of 2 at 95% confidence interval with a significance level of 5%. Cases of pulmonary tuberculosis were selected through consecutive sampling technique, either visiting OPD or admitted in hospital. Controls were taken from the general population and frequency matching was done based on age, gender and socioeconomic status. Data was collected through structured questionnaire after taking written consent. Data was analyzed on SPSS version 23. Binary Logistic regression model was applied for finding association between the risk factors and the disease. P value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Out of all cases and controls, 45% and 20% were diabetics respectively. The association between the risk factors and tuberculosis was estimated by univariate analysis, positive association was found between diabetes and tuberculosis (OR= 3.32), a high frequency of diabetes in cases as compared to controls were observed with a highly significant p- value (<0.001). Conclusions: This study provides evidence for a strong positive association between tuberculosis and diabetes. (author)