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[en] The article presents the results of analysis of statistical regularities (average seasonal and annual variations) of the changes in the total ozone, nitrogen oxide and water vapor in atmosphere, which were obtained during measurements at the AERONET station. It is shown that the dynamics of investigated greenhouse gases strongly depends on conditions of their generation and runoff, including meteorological and anthropogenic factors. (author)
[en] The article presents the results of analysis of statistical regularities (average daily and monthly variations) of changes in total ozone, nitrogen oxide and water vapor in the atmosphere, which were obtained during measurements at AERONET station. It is shown that dynamics of investigated greenhouse gases strongly depends on conditions of their generation and runoff, including meteorological and anthropogenic factors.
[en] This paper discusses the preliminary results of optical and micro physical properties of the atmosphere in Dushanbe, conducted between July 2010 till March 2011 using the sun photometer C E-318 on framework of AERONET program. Aerosol optical thickness decreases monotonically with increasing wavelength. The analysis of seasonal changes in dust associated with the intrusion of dust haze. (author)
[en] Objective: This study aimed to explore the patterns of radioactive iodine (RAI) use for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) in Brazil over the past 20 years. Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis of the DTC-related RAI prescriptions, from 2000 to 2018, retrieved from the Department of Informatics of the Unified Health System (Datasus) and National Supplementary Health Agency (ANS) database was performed. RAI activities prescriptions were re-classified as low (30-50 mCi), intermediate (100 mCi), or high activities (>100 mCi). Results: The number of DTC-related RAI prescriptions increased from 0.45 to 2.28/100,000 inhabitants from 2000 to 2015, declining onwards, closing 2018 at 1.87/100,000. In 2018, population-adjusted RAI prescriptions by state ranged from 0.07 to 4.74/100,000 inhabitants. Regarding RAI activities, in the 2000 to 2008 period, the proportion of high-activities among all RAI prescriptions increased from 51.2% to 74.1%. From 2009 onwards, there was a progressive reduction in high-activity prescriptions in the country, closing 2018 at 50.1%. In 2018, the practice of requesting high-activities varied from 16% to 82% between Brazilian states. Interestingly, variability of RAI use do not seem to be related to RAI referral center volume nor state socio-economic indicators. Conclusion: In recent years, there has been a trend towards the lower prescription of RAI, and a reduction of high-activity RAI prescriptions for DTC in Brazil. Also, significative inter-state and inter-institutional variability on RAI use was documented. These results suggest that actions to advance DTC healthcare quality surveillance should be prioritized. (author)
[en] The state of Rio Grande do Norte is a leader in wind power generation in the country with more than 150 wind farms in operation and 4 GW of installed capacity. Although the wind energy industry continues to grow, there are still very few papers that analyze wind behavior at heights above 80 m, which is typically the height of a wind turbine rotor. In this paper, a 95 m wind behavior analysis was carried out in two wind farms in the city of Parazinho-RN on monthly, seasonal and hourly scale, with the goal of identifying which periods of 2017 were more favorable for wind power production in the region. The wind speed and direction data used in this study were collected by a Thies First Class high precision cup anemometer and a Thies Compact wind direction indicator, corresponding to the hourly average of the measurements performed every second and integrated in intervals of 10 minutes in the period from January 1 to December 31, 2017. According with the results presented in this paper, it was verified that spring is the season of 2017 that presents the highest average monthly wind speeds, with maximum peak in the month of September, while lower speeds vary during the March-April-May quarter. The diurnal period between 10:00 am and 5:00 pm local time is the one with the most frequently wind speed ≥ 10 m.s-1. Wind direction varies from east to south, with predominance of east and southeast directions, in about 80% of the time. During the quarters that correspond to summer and fall, Weibull distributions are more concentrated around 6.5 and 7 m.s-1, indicating that in this period of the year there is a greater probability of occurrence of lower average speeds, implying in lower productivity for wind energy. The opposite is observed in winter and spring, with the exception of June, where the distributions are more concentrated around speeds ≥ 8 m.s-1 and there is a higher probability of higher average speeds to occur, showing that this was the best period of the year 2017 for wind power generation. (author)
[en] A device-independent dimension test for a Bell experiment aims to estimate the underlying Hilbert space dimension that is required to produce given measurement statistical data without any other assumptions concerning the quantum apparatus. Previous work mostly deals with the two-party version of this problem. In this paper, we propose a very general and robust approach to test the dimension of any subsystem in a multiparty Bell experiment. Our dimension test stems from the study of a new multiparty scenario which we call prepare-and-distribute. This is like the prepare-and-measure scenario, but the quantum state is sent to multiple, noncommunicating parties. Through specific examples, we show that our test results can be tight. Furthermore, we compare the performance of our test to results based on known bipartite tests, and witness remarkable advantages, which indicates that our test is of a true multiparty nature. We conclude by pointing out that with some partial information about the quantum states involved in the experiment, it is possible to learn other interesting properties beyond dimension. (paper)
[en] Objectives: To report the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on patient attendance at a radiotherapy department two months after the implementation of specific policies regarding the pandemic. Methods: The proposed treatment schemes, favoring hypofractionated schedules, and COVID-19 management strategies regarding irradiation are presented. Attendance after two months of implementation of these policies was measured and compared with that during the same period in 2019. Results: A 10% reduction in the number of treated patients and a 26% reduction in the number of sessions was observed. The main impact was a decrease in the treatment of benign diseases and gastrointestinal tumors, with a general increase in breast cancer treatments. Eighteen (1.7%) patients were confirmed as having COVID-19 during radiotherapy in April and May 2020, three of whom were hospitalized, and one patient died because of COVID-19. Among the 18 patients, 12 had their treatments interrupted for at least 15 days from symptom appearance. Conclusion: There was a decrease in the number of treated patients in our radiotherapy department, with a greater decrease in the total number of sessions. This indicated, overall, a smaller number of fractions/patients treated, despite our efforts to maintain the treatment routine. We had several patients who were infected with COVID-19 and one related death during treatment in the first few months of the pandemic in Saão Paulo Brazil. (author)
[en] Background: The accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for making the diagnosis of subscapularis tears presents wide variation in the literature and there are few prospective studies. Objective: To compare the findings from MRI and arthroscopy for diagnosing subscapularis tears. Design and setting: Diagnostic test study performed in a tertiary care hospital. Methods: We included patients who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair and who had firstly undergone high magnetic field MRI without contrast. The images were independently evaluated by a shoulder surgeon and two musculoskeletal radiologists. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, accuracy and inter and intra-observer agreement were calculated. Results: MRIs on 200 shoulders were evaluated. The incidence of subscapularis tears was 69.5% (41.5% partial and 28.0% full-thickness). The inter and intra-observer agreement was moderate for detection of subscapularis tears. The shoulder surgeon presented sensitivity of 51.1% to 59.0% and specificity of 91.7% to 94.4%. The radiologists showed sensitivity of 83.5% to 87.1% and specificity of 41% to 45.9%. Accuracy ranged from 60.5% to 73.0%. Conclusion: The 1.5-T MRIs without contrast showed mean sensitivity of 70.2% and mean specificity of 61.9% for detection of subscapularis tears. Sensitivity was higher for the musculoskeletal radiologists, while specificity was higher for the shoulder surgeon. The mean accuracy was 67.6%, i.e. lower than that of rotator cuff tears overall. (author)
[en] In 2017, more than 2.8 million people in Germany worked in a wide variety of occupations and fields in environmental protection. With a share of 6.4 % of all employed persons, environmental protection is thus an important factor for the entire labor market. More than half of the environmental protection workforce, a good 1.5 million people, performed activities for climate protection in 2017. That is 3.4 percent of the total workforce. One in 30 employees therefore owes their job to climate protection. As in previous years, environmental protection service employees accounted for the largest share of environmental protection employment in Germany in 2017, at around 56%.
[de]Im Jahr 2017 waren in Deutschland mehr als 2,8 Millionen Personen in den unterschiedlichsten Berufen und Bereichen für den Umweltschutz tätig. Mit einem Anteil von 6,4 % an allen Erwerbstätigen ist der Umweltschutz damit ein wichtiger Faktor für den gesamten Arbeitsmarkt. Mehr als die Hälfte der Umweltschutzbeschäftigten, gut 1,5 Millionen Personen, führten im Jahr 2017 Tätigkeiten für den Klimaschutz aus. Das sind 3,4 Prozent aller Erwerbstätigen. Jeder 30. Beschäftigte verdankt also seinen Arbeitsplatz dem Klimaschutz. Wie in den Vorjahren machten auch im Jahr 2017 die Umweltschutzdienstleistungsbeschäftigten mit rund 56% den größten Anteil der Umweltschutzbeschäftigung in Deutschland aus.
[en] "Energy-related emissions" are greenhouse gases and air pollutants released by the conversion of energy carriers into electrical and / or thermal energy (electricity and heat production). In this publication, UBA has compiled graphs and tables for the years 1990 to 2017 that show the energy-related emissions for greenhouse gases and selected air pollutants and the amount of fuels used for this purpose, broken down by sector.
[de]„Energiebedingte Emissionen“ sind Treibhausgase und Luftschadstoffe, die durch die Umwandlung von Energieträgern in elektrische und / oder thermische Energie (Strom- und Wärmeproduktion) freigesetzt werden. In dieser Veröffentlichung hat das UBA für die Jahre 1990 bis 2017 Grafiken und Tabellen zusammengestellt, die die energiebedingten Emissionen für Treibhausgase und ausgewählte Luftschadstoffe und die Menge der dafür eingesetzten Brennstoffe nach Sektoren aufgeschlüsselt darstellen.