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[en] This annex explains how an effective asset management programme can provide benefits both to the owner/operator and to society, as articulated through the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
[en] A nuclear new build project may be implemented in many ways depending on the commissioning agent (the owner). The different scenarios are as follows: — Does the owner have an existing nuclear fleet? — Will the utility have to be built at the same time as the nuclear power plant? — Is this new build one of several? — Will the operating organization be the owning organization? — Is there an existing organization providing management and engineering services? — What is the nature of the contracts for engineering, procurement and construction (EPC)? — What will be the influence of the government, regulations and finance? In all of these scenarios, the focus for the new build project needs to be on ensuring that asset management is considered from the start, which includes the initial definition of requirements of the facility. This annex describes a set of overarching principles to guide the development of the asset management environment for operations to continue during the EPC phase of a nuclear new build project.
[en] Several countries are planning their first/new research reactor as a key national facility for the development of their nuclear science and technology programmes, including nuclear power. The introduction of a new research reactor in a country requires the establishment of an adequate national infrastructure, covering a wide range of technical areas. This paper briefly describes certain special characteristics of a nuclear power programme which need to be kept in mind by government planners and policy makers before any country embarks on a nuclear energy programme. It also briefly describes the infrastructure and institutions that are required to be built for sustenance of a nuclear energy programme. In the end, it also describes India’s nuclear energy programme. (author)
[en] National nuclear institutes (NNIs) contribute significantly to national development, providing services focused on developing and applying relevant technologies for the public good. While many NNIs provide commercial services and products that generate revenue, some are financially dependent on subsidies from national governments. This publication presents the outcome of a workshop which addressed the challenges for Member States regarding self-reliance and sustainability of their NNIs. Participants discussed efforts and best practices to cope with these challenges. The publication includes positive examples of tools or measures to be used in practical projects and programmes for achieving management goals towards self-reliance and sustainability. Examples of governmental policies in support of self-reliance and sustainability of NNIs are also presented. Finally, the country presentations in this publication show some examples of how NNIs cooperate with public or private stakeholders, providing some insights on how partnership opportunities can be explored.
[en] As the project lifetime of Czech nuclear power plants approaches the end and new built projects will take at least 20 years, LTO acts as an important bridge between the plants currently in operation and future ones. With respect to commitments to reduce CO2 emissions resulting from the 2015 Paris Convention, it is important that electricity production from nuclear power plants does not fall from the current 40%, as there is a limited possibility to use other sources of energy that are low in CO2 production due to natural conditions (i.e. number of solar days is lower compared to more southerly regions, limited wind potential).A further argument for LTO is the Government’s demand for permanent self‑sufficiency in electricity production and not to increase dependency on imported energy sources such as gas and oil. The State energy concept is therefore to increase the share of electricity production from nuclear power to 50% by 2040. ČEZ gives LTO provisions great attention and variants of LTO length are comprehensively assessed regularly in terms of the condition of plant technology, LTO economy and possible risks and uncertainties threatening LTO. The department for asset management at ČEZ conducts a technical–economic study of LTO of both plants every five years. This annex briefly describes the study on the Dukovany nuclear power plant, prepared in 2014–2016.
[en] In 2014, the profitability of Vattenfall nuclear power plants dropped markedly following a dip in electricity prices combined with a high investment demand due to lifetime extensions. Hence, Vattenfall decided in 2015 to shut down two of the reactors at Ringhals in 2019–2020. For the two remaining reactors at Ringhals and the three reactors in Forsmark, the aim is 60 years of operation, with the last plant closing in 2045.The electricity price is expected to continue to be low due to added capacity of renewables in the Nordic power system. To assure profitability of Vattenfall nuclear power plants, a production cost target has been set at approximately €19/MW·h. A high demand on profitability enhances the need for efficient ageing management and cost efficient solutions. In this process, the principles for asset management according to PAS55‑1:20081 have been a helpful tool.
[en] This publication describes decision making in and implementation of asset management for sustainable nuclear power plant operation. It addresses aspects of asset management in nuclear power plants and presents shared experience and lessons identified, based on operational experience and knowledge. Although the publication is aimed at promoting asset management for nuclear power plants, the approach presented can also benefit other nuclear fuel cycle facilities, as they also constitute nuclear assets.
[en] In 2018, EDF operated a standardized fleet in France: 58 pressurized water reactors from one vendor and one licence through the 900 MW series (34 reactors); the 1300 MW series (20 reactors); and the 1450 MW series (4 reactors). In total, 75% of the fleet was built between 1979 and 1990, the oldest reactor is 40 years old and the average age of the fleet is 30 years. Thus, LTO programmes and plant life management have been key issues for years.The principles of asset management as mentioned in ISO55000:20141 are implemented in EDF processes, from strategic levels to working levels. If the main goals are shared inside the company, the nuclear operating branch is organized following several programmes (e.g.ageing management, obsolescence, maintenance and optimization, refurbishment for major components) and projects (e.g. periodic safety reviews, post Fukushima improvements) that are quite autonomous to contribute in maintaining or improving the value of the assets.
[en] Whereas the French law related to energy transition for a green growth defined the objective of energy self-sufficiency in overseas territories by 2030 (i.e. a higher objective than for the metropolitan mainland), this report proposes a synthesis and comparative analysis of studies performed for 6 territories (Mayotte, Reunion, Guadeloupe, Martinique, and Guyana by 2030, and Corsica by 2050). The main lessons learned from these studies are highlighted: possibility of a 100 pc renewable electricity mix, issue of energy management, high reduction of the importance of Diesel plants, significant share of varying wind and photovoltaic energies, decrease of the costs of the produced energy, electricity systems appeared to be steady. It discusses the context and conditions to reach the defined objectives. It presents the methodology and main hypotheses of the performed studies: elaboration of a data set, optimisation of trajectories of evolution of the electricity mix for 5 scenarios, ex-post economic analysis, modelling of the 5 scenarios for each territory. Results are globally presented (an expected decrease of global costs of electricity, an electricity system which could remain steady in front of significant incidents), and the limitations and perspectives of the study are discussed. Results are then presented for the six different territories (data in 2017 and 2030, renewable potentials, mix analysis for each scenario, economic analysis of scenarios, focus on a specific scenario).
[fr]La loi relative a la transition energetique pour la croissance verte (LTECV) a fixe comme objectif de parvenir a l'autonomie energetique dans les departements et regions d'outre-mer (DROM) a l'horizon 2030. La Collectivite Territoriale de Corse vise ce meme objectif pour 2050. L'ADEME a souhaite mener une etude pour evaluer les implications techniques, organisationnelles et economiques qu'aurait un mix electrique tres fo tement renouvelable dans ces territoires, pour la majorite insulaires (Mayotte, La Reunion, la Guadeloupe, la Martinique, la Guyane et la Corse). Le vecteur electrique, permettant une production locale basee sur les energies renouvelables, et adapte a de multiples usages en substitution a des energies fossiles importees, pourrait jouer un role preponderant pour atteindre cet objectif ambitieux d'autonomie energetique. A l'heure de la revision des Programmations Pluriannuelles de l'Energie des ZNI (PPE), cette etude se veut un outil d'aide pour les instances decisionnelles afin de nourrir la reflexion des parties prenantes et ouvrir le champ des possibles.
[en] After having recalled the definition of a very-low level (or TFA) radioactive waste, of their production origins and storage site, this contribution aims at discussing how to develop a circular economy about these wastes, i.e. to reduce the consumption of natural resources and to limit the waste production, notably through a valorisation of these wastes. While proposing an overview of the nuclear sector, of its waste production, of the consequences of dismantling operations, the authors notice that the French nuclear industry already applies a circular economy logics for some of its activities, but is not able to recycle TFA wastes for regulatory reasons, and also notice the existence of a European positive return on experience for the valorisation of some metals issued from dismantling activities. They outline the existence of know-hows, industrial processes and projects for the implementation of a valorisation of TFA wastes. These existing aspects are either technical, related to traceability, or industrial. The authors conclude that such a valorisation project has already been a matter of public debates and dialogues resulting in a favourable opinion.
[fr]L'economie circulaire, qui vise a reduire la consommation de ressources naturelles et a limiter la production de dechets, doit aussi s'appliquer a l'industrie nucleaire, et precisement ici a certains dechets TFA. Il s'agit principalement de metaux dont la radioactivite residuelle est extremement faible, voire nulle, et qui pourraient par des procedes industriels, etre recycles apres traitement par fusion et controles pour de nouveaux usages sans impact sanitaire et environnemental. La valorisation des dechets TFA, tels que les metaux, est deja mise en oeuvre dans les autres pays europeens. La qualification d'un dechet radioactif s'y fait sur la base de son niveau de radioactivite: en dessous d'un certain seuil, un dechet n'est pas considere comme radioactif et peut etre recycle. Notre pays a tous les atouts techniques et industriels pour creer une filiere de valorisation des metaux, via la creation d'une installation dediee. Si les decisions sont prises aujourd'hui, cette installation pourrait etre operationnelle des 2030, parallelement a une optimisation du stockage actuel au Cires. Ce projet de valorisation de metaux TFA a fait l'objet de debats publics et de concertations donnant lieu a un avis favorable, a l'issue de laquelle une evolution de la reglementation encadrant la gestion des dechets TFA a ete actee par le ministere de la Transition ecologique et solidaire et l'Autorite de surete nucleaire (ASN).