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[en] The aim of the project group 'Sustainable production of biomass is to develop a long-term vision on sustainable biomass; to draft criteria for imported biomass; and to start the realization of certification criteria for biomass.
[nl]De doelstelling van de projectgroep 'Duurzame productie van biomassa' is: Het ontwikkelen van een maatschappelijk gedragen lange-termijn visie op wat duurzaam geproduceerde biomassa is, die als grondstof en energiebron wordt geimporteerd. De visie bevat een algemeen kader (met uitgangspunten voor food, feed, fuel), van waaruit de vertaling naar toetsbare criteria kan worden gemaakt; Het opstellen van toetsbare criteria voor duurzaam geimporteerde biomassa; Het aanbieden van een set toetsbare criteria aan de rijksoverheid, die in regelgeving rond MEP en biobrandstoffen kan worden toegepast; Het starten van een denkproces om op termijn tot gewenste certificering te komen. Een certificaat ontwikkelen is een kwestie van lange adem, en zal dus ook na beeindiging van deze projectopdracht doorlopen. Hoofdstuk 1 beschrijft projectopdracht, doel en aanpak van de projectgroep. Hoofdstuk 2 gaat in op de visie en uitgangspunten voor de uitwerking van duurzaamheidcriteria en -indicatoren. Hoofdstuk 3 geeft een korte toelichting en uitwerking per criterium/indicator. Hoofdstuk 4 licht ieder criterium uitgebreider toe. Hoofdstuk 5 beschrijft de gedachtevorming van de projectgroep met betrekking tot certificering. Hoofdstuk 6 geeft weer welke vervolgactiviteiten de projectgroep voorziet voor de tweede helft van 2006 en op langere termijn. Hoofdstuk 7 besluit met conclusies en aanbevelingen. Bijlagen: Referenties naar conventies en keurmerken; Resultaten webenquete; Verslag werkconferentie 'Duurzame productie van biomassa, 15 juni 2006; Geconsulteerde stakeholders; Berekening broeikasgasbalans.
[en] How are biofuels to be certified as produced in a sustainable and responsible fashion? In the global debate over this issue, one party to the proceedings seems rarely to be mentioned - namely the commodities exchanges through which a global biofuels market is being created. In this contribution, I propose a solution to the problem of sustainability certification through a biofuels futures contract equipped with 'proof of origin' documentation. The proposal does not call for any radical break with current practice, extending existing certification procedures with a requirement for the vendor to provide documentation, probably in barcoded form, of the history of the biofuel offered for sale, including plantation and biorefinery where the biofuel was produced and subsequent blendings it may have undergone. The proposal is thus compatible with the blending practices of large global traders, whose activities are the source of the difficulties of other approaches to certification. It is argued that if such a sustainable futures contract for bioethanol (in the first instance) were to be introduced, then it would likely trade at a premium and become the primary vehicle for North-South trade in biofuels. (author)
[en] This book contains the short papers from the International Symposium on Convective heat and Mass Transfer in sustainable Energy ( Conv-09), organized on behalf of the International Centre for Heat and Mass Transfer, it was held on April 26- 1st May, In Hammamet, Tunisia. The objective of this conference is to bring together researchers in a forum to exchange innovative ideas, methods and results, and visions of the future related to the general theme of convective heat and mass transfer
[en] This book contains the short papers from the International Symposium on convective heat and Mass Transfer in sustainable Energy ( conv-09), organized on behalf of the International Centre for Heat and Mass Transfer, it was held on April 26- 1st May, In Hammamet, Tunisia. The objective of this conference is to bring together researchers in a forum to exchange innovative ideas, methods and results, and visions of the future related to the general theme of convective heat and mass transfer
[en] With the aim to the future solar installations system in the rural area it has been done a report about 210 rural units placed in: Rivera, Tacuarembo, Salto, Paysandu, Florida, Flores, Lavalleja, Durazno, Cerro largo y Rio Negro departments
[en] In approximately 20,000 US wildfire 'at-risk' communities, private citizen awareness and involvement is essential for the effective integration of sustainable fuel reduction programs with the establishment of local biomass/woody materials businesses and bioenergy facilities. The factors that influence local community bioenergy and wood products economic development are mostly social, political, and financial not biological, ecological, or technological. It is the private sector that is the driving force for creating and influencing sustainable forest resources and broadening access to public lands. The many years of no-wood harvesting policies in the United States have caused excessive overgrowth and eliminated local forest products markets. Now with the severe overgrowth, drought and beetle-infested conditions in many Southwestern forests, actions are necessary to reduce fire hazards, improve public safety, and promote forest health. It is the local communities that must take an active role in creating bioenergy facilities and wood products markets to use these fuel reduction supplies. A case in point is Prescott, Arizona, which is enclosed in the south and west by the Bradshaw Mountains and Sierra Prieta range. In 1990, under companion resolution of the Mayor of the City of Prescott and the Yavapai County Supervisors, the Prescott Area Wildland/Urban Interface Commission (PAWUIC) was formed to address the continuing growth of urban population into the wildland areas surrounding the Prescott basin. This organization of private volunteers and cooperating government agencies has the objectives to provide community fire safety education, wildland/urban fire hazard removal, and to promote the local markets for materials harvested from the wildland areas. (author)
[en] The Platform for Sustainable Mobility aims to promote the accelerated market introduction of more sustainable motor fuels and vehicle technology. The Platform distinguishes four transition paths: hybridization of the fleet of cars; implementation of biofuels; hydrogen-fuelled driving (driving on natural gas and biogas); intelligent transport systems (ITS). This advice involves part of the transition path for the implementation of biofuels, i.e. accelerated market introduction of advances biofuels. [mk]
[nl]Het Platform Duurzame Mobiliteit heeft als doelstelling het bevorderen van een versnelde marktintroductie van duurzamere motorbrandstoffen en voertuigtechnologie. Het Platform onderscheidt vier transitiepaden: hybridisering van het wagenpark; toepassing van biobrandstoffen; rijden op waterstof (via rijden op aard- en biogas); intelligente transportsystemen (ITS). Dit advies betreft een deel van het transitiepad voor de toepassing van biobrandstoffen, namelijk de versnelde marktinvoering van geavanceerde biobrandstoffen
[en] Biogas refers to a gas produced by the biological breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen. Biogas can be used as a fuel in any country for any heating purpose such as cooking. By means of digesters, the energy in the gas can be converted to electricity and heat. Biogas like natural gas can also be used to power motor vehicle. Biogas is a renewable fuel which qualifies it for a renewable energy subsidy. It is non-toxic, environment-friendly and serve as a means of combating global warming. Biogas is presently being used in U.S.A, U.K, China, Sweden, Brazil, and India amongst others for domestic purposes, transportation and power generation. In this regard, this paper discusses biogas production. It also presents a model design of domestic biogas plant suitable for Nigerian households. The paper recommends that Nigerian Government should intensify efforts in educating the masses on this novel technology for a sustainable global development. A biogas plant designed for Nigerian household discussed in this paper is also recommended.
[en] In the discussion on imports of biomass a number of obstacles are mentioned. It is very important to know these barriers and to find out how they may be overcome. Questions to be answered are (1) Which are the main objections against import of biomass (negative impacts on biodiversity, competition with the production of food, disbalance of nutrients, etc); (2) Is it possible to quantify these objections?; and (3) What are the possibilities to overcome these barriers? The Biomass Upstream Steering committee (BUS), consisting of the participating consortium partners, was created to generate new ideas, select and rank the most promising ones to be worked out in more detail and to invite market parties to jointly set up R and D projects on upstream biomass
[en] Current insights suggest that various world regions have the potential to produce a large surplus of biomass fuels. This situation envisages a fascinating concept: the international trade of energy from biomass. Provided the sustainability of large-scale biomass production is guaranteed, various countries and regions may become net suppliers of renewable bio-energy to countries that are net importers of energy. In the long term a global market of renewable energy carriers derived from biomass may emerge. Advantages of such a market may be: biomass resources are utilized efficiently on a large scale; new markets may generate substantial income sources for relatively poor world regions; and diversification may result in more stable energy markets worldwide. However, many questions need to be addressed to guarantee that such large-scale trade is feasible and truly sustainable. This contribution is based on various recent studies dealing with the global potential for biomass for energy on the longer term, techno-economic analysis of international biotrade chains and a newly established Task group (number 40) under the IEA Bio-energy Agreement, titled: Sustainable Bio-energy Trade, with participation of over ten countries and international institutions as the Food Agricultural Organization (FAO) and the World Bank