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[en] The paper summarizes the results of RATEN ICN Pitesti experts' activities in the IAEA's Collaborative Project INPRO-SYNERGIES. Romanian study proposes to evaluate and analyze development of the nuclear capacity and increasing of its share in national energy sector, envisaging the long term national and regional energy sustainability by keeping options open for the future while bringing solutions to short/medium-term challenges. The study focused on the modelling of national NES (Nuclear Energy System) development on short and medium-term (time horizon 2050), considering the existing NFC (Nuclear Fuel Cycle) infrastructure and legislation, provisions of strategic documents in force and including also the possibility of regional collaboration regarding U/fresh fuel supply and SF (Spent Fuel) storage, as services provided at international market prices. The energy system modelling was realized by using the IAEA's MESSAGE program. The study results offer a clear image and also the possible answer to several key questions regarding: potential of nuclear energy to participate with an important share in national energy mix, in conditions of cost competitiveness, safety and security of supply; impact on national energy mix portfolio of capacities and electricity production; impact on Uranium domestic resources; economic projection/investments needed for new nuclear capacities addition; fresh fuel requirements for nuclear capacities; SF annually discharged and transferred to interim wet storage for cooling; SF volume in interim dry storage, etc. (authors)
[en] Certification systems for sustainable neighbourhoods started to emerge around a decade ago. This study analysed the content, structure, weighting and indicators of two established certification systems for sustainable urban development – BREEAM Communities and LEED for Neighborhood Development. Several limitations of these systems were identified: both have a bias for procedure and feature indicators over indicators that assess actual performance; performance demands are set according to a relative understanding of sustainable development; the focus is on internal sustainability, while upstream and downstream impacts of construction are disregarded; the number and distribution of mandatory issues do not cover essential sustainability aspects; and the disproportionately large number of non-mandatory issues makes benchmarking difficult and signals that sustainability aspects are exchangeable. Altogether, this means that an area can be certified without being sustainable. Moreover, the lack of continuous development of certification requirements in the systems means that they risk exerting a conservative effect on urban development, rather than pushing it forward. - Highlights: • BREEAM-C and LEED-ND were analysed in terms of content and structure. • Specific attention was given to the type of indicators used for showing compliance. • In both systems procedure and feature indicators dominate over performance indicators. • Several other limitations of these certification systems were also identified. • Altogether the limitations imply that a certificate does not warrant sustainability.
[en] The purpose of this study is to explore the empirical relationship between foreign direct investment (FDI), population, energy production, and water resources in South Asia. The newly developed approach dynamic common correlated effects (DCCE) by Chudik and Pesaran (Journal of Econometrics 188:393–420, 2015a) for measuring co-integration has been applied in the present study. This procedure provides significant robust outcomes in the presence of cross-sectional dependence among the cross-sectional units. The findings confirmed that earlier models, such as mean group (MG), pooled mean group (PMG), and augmented mean group (AMG), which have been used in the literature for long data, provide misleading results in the presence of cross-sectional dependence among the cross-sectional units. A statistically significant and negative result has been observed between FDI, population, energy production, and water resources in South Asia. The governments of South Asian economies must encourage green FDI initiatives for water management, ensuring water security, securing natural resources for enhancing the sustainable development of regional economies.
[en] Full text of publication follows. Nuclear energy's role in a sustainable energy future is increasingly embraced by various countries around the world. As a technologically mature, economic and safe energy conversion technology, nuclear energy provides also an important solution towards abating the unsustainable pressure on environment by our fossil-fuel driven economy. Today, there is significant deployment of nuclear power reactors especially in Asian countries, i.e. China and India, with a variety of newcomer countries already launched or planning in the construction of new nuclear power plants. While nuclear on itself may already contribute significantly to the sustainability of energy provision to the world, i.e. being a 'zero-greenhouse gas emission' energy conversion technology, the sustainability of the nuclear option is essentially defined by the intranuclear options aimed at reducing the use of non-renewable natural resources, by reducing further the waste arising and to assure economic and non-proliferating as well as safe operation of nuclear energy systems. Sustainability of the nuclear option is therefore primarily defined by the nuclear fuel cycle with reprocessing and recycling playing an essential role to achieve such sustainability and this based on industrially proven practices. The paper addresses specifically, in more detail, the role of reprocessing and recycling in providing sustainable avenues from a resource and a waste management perspective. (authors)
[en] In the area of energy, we can relate sustainable development with availability of resources and GHG emissions regarding the fight against climate change. For an energy source to be sustainable, secure and competitive it must present the availability of the resource in cause, a low GHG emission rate and competitive cost in contrast with the alternatives found on the market. Currently taking into account its high energetic dependency rate and its high share of fossil fuel in the energy mix, the EU is aiming through the use of renewable energy, wind and solar panels in particularly to redevelop its energetic sector. It wants improve its energetic security and in the same time reduce the impact upon environment at a sustainable cost; Nuclear energy can be a solution to the EU energy policy due to the fact that it is available, competitive and has a low impact upon environment. The current paper analyzes the economics of nuclear energy taking into account these three dimensions. (authors)