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[en] The introduction of new technology sometimes proceeds sluggishly due to discontinuity in incentive schemes. Estimating in advance which means are required, what a realistic time span is for the incentive scheme and continuing this scheme until the technology is marketable can significantly increase the success of innovation trajectories. [mk]
[nl]De introductie van nieuwe technologie verloopt soms moeizaam door discontinuiteit in stimuleringsregelingen. Door vooraf in te schatten hoeveel middelen nodig zijn, wat een reele tijdsduur is voor de stimuleringsregeling en deze vol te houden tot de technologie marktrijp is, kan het succes van innovatietrajecten aanmerkelijk vergroot worden
[en] Highlights: • SOFT 2014 has taken place in Donostia/San Sebastián. • Tungsten/wolfram (W) is a strategic material for the development of fusion. • W was isolated very close to Donostia in the late 18th century as a result of a combination of fortunate circumstances. • This fact is largely unknown even to the fusion materials experts working with W. • We describe this story with some detail. - Abstract: This paper is intended as a preface of the special issue that Fusion Engineering and Design will devote to the best papers presented in the Symposium on Fusion Technology, 2014 (SOFT 2014) that took place in Donostia/San Sebastián. It is a historical note dwelling on the largely unknown story of the isolation of tungsten/wolfram in Spain, more precisely, in the Basque Country, very close to Donostia/San Sebastián, in the late 18th century. Given the current strategic importance of tungsten in the development of fusion as a viable energy source we think it is timely to recall the protagonists and the circumstances involved in the isolation of this metal.
[en] From a study on data from the period 1991-1999 it appears that environmental policy has a positive effect on the technical efficiency in the greenhouse sector in the Netherlands
[nl]Milieubeleid heeft een positief effect op technische efficientie in de Nederlandse glastuinbouw. De overheersende mening in kringen van ondernemers, beleidsmakers en politici dat milieubeleid alleen maar tot hogere kosten leidt behoeft nuancering
[en] The research concerns the influence of the body computer tomograph (BCT) on the efficiency in radiology and in the hospital as a whole in The Netherlands. Hospitals with CT are compared with hospitals without CT. In radiology the substitution effect is investigated, with use of the number of radiological performances per clinical patient as a parameter. This parameter proves to decrease in hospitals with a CT, in contrast to hospitals without a CT. The often-expressed opinion that the CT should specifically perform complementary examinations appears incorrect. As to the efficiency in the hospital this is related to the average hospital in-patient stay. The average hospital in-patient stay proves to be shorter in hospitals with a CT than in those without a CT. The CT has turned out to be a very effective expedient which unfortunately, however, is being used inefficiently in The Netherlands, owing to limited installation. 17 refs.; 6 figs.; 5 tabs
[en] Due to the rapid growth in demand for certain materials, compounded by political risks associated with the geographical concentration of the supply of them, a shortage of these materials could be a potential bottleneck to the deployment of low-carbon energy technologies. In order to assess whether such shortages could jeopardise the objectives of the EU's Strategic Energy Technology Plan (SET-Plan), an improved understanding of these risks is vital. In particular, this report examines the use of metals in the six low-carbon energy technologies of SET-Plan, namely: nuclear, solar, wind, bioenergy, carbon capture and storage (CCS) and electricity grids. The study looks at the average annual demand for each metal for the deployment of the technologies in Europe between 2020 and 2030. The demand of each metal is compared to the respective global production volume in 2010. This ratio (expressed as a percentage) allows comparing the relative stress that the deployment of the six technologies in Europe is expected to create on the global supplies for these different metals. The study identifies 14 metals for which the deployment of the six technologies will require 1% or more (and in some cases, much more) of current world supply per annum between 2020 and 2030. These 14 metals, in order of decreasing demand, are tellurium, indium, tin, hafnium, silver, dysprosium, gallium, neodymium, cadmium, nickel, molybdenum, vanadium, niobium and selenium. The metals are examined further in terms of the risks of meeting the anticipated demand by analysing in detail the likelihood of rapid future global demand growth, limitations to expanding supply in the short to medium term, and the concentration of supply and political risks associated with key suppliers. The report pinpoints 5 of the 14 metals to be at high risk, namely: the rare earth metals neodymium and dysprosium, and the by-products (from the processing of other metals) indium, tellurium and gallium. The report explores a set of potential mitigation strategies, ranging from expanding European output, increasing recycling and reuse to reducing waste and finding substitutes for these metals in their main applications.
[en] The author is convinced that the 21st century will become the 'solar age'. No renewable energy technology has a bigger potential than direct conversion of sunlight into heat, electricity and (on the longer term) fuels. This makes solar energy indispensible for our future sustainable energy supply. Moreover, technology developments over several decades and economies of scale have brought solar energy ever closer to competitiveness. In selected applications solar energy can already compete with fossil fuel-based alternatives today. Photovoltaic conversion of solar energy (PV) has demonstrated particularly impressive progress in terms of technology development and market growth. The coming decade is considered crucial for the development of PV into a mainstream supplier of electricity. It is expected that PV will gradually reach grid parity with retail electricity in many parts of the world, meaning that the generation costs of PV electricity will be equal to, or lower than, consumer prices of 'grey' electricity. The development of PV, however, does by no means stop in 2020 and the competitiveness of PV will continue to strengthen after that, bringing more markets within reach. Eventually PV is expected to be able to compete with almost all other electricity generation options, allowing application on a vary scale and substantial contributions to the global electricity or even energy consumption.
[nl]Volgens de auteur is zonnestroom is bezig aan een onstuitbare opmars. De ontwikkeling van een technologie voor niche-toepassingen naar een technologie voor grootschalig gebruik verloopt met vallen en opstaan, maar rennend. Het komende decennium wordt gekenmerkt door de overgang van een vrijwel volledig subsidiegedreven sector naar de eerste grote zelfdragende markten. De vraag is niet of, maar uitsluitend hoe snel en in welke vormen zonnestroom zal bijdragen aan de transitie naar een duurzame energiehuishouding.
[en] This status report addresses the implementation of solar energy in the Netherlands. The aim of this report is to provide an overview of the market and the techniques of solar energy and the bottlenecks that hamper further growth of the market
[nl]Dit statusrapport gaat over de toepassing van zonnestroom in Nederland. Het doel van dit rapport is om een overzicht te geven van de markt en technieken van zonnestroom en de knelpunten die er zijn om tot verdere groei van de markt te komen
[en] At a time when H.E.P. experiments require high speed, high density, high reliability, high performances (low noise, efficient cooling...) and rather sophisticated and multifunction readout electronics, the new technologies of packaging and interconnects are being more and more in demand. This paper reviews the presently available technologies (such as fine-pitch surface mount packages, TAB technology and MCM, i.e. multichip modules), the reasons for using them in H.E.P., and gives examples of some applications being developed and the prospects
[en] Each participant of the Third Pisa Meeting on Advanced Detectors had received a questionnaire prepared by S.R. Amendolia under the supervision of L. Stringa, convenor of the round-table. The questionnaires addressed the most important points in the technical and economical aspects of high energy physics experiments, with the scope of focusing on the interaction of the industrial world with the pure research branch which the participants represented. The questionnaires were elaborated and shown as an introductory talk to the round-table. (orig.)