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[en] The paper describes a project of automatic selection, scraping, and full-text analysis of contracts in the area of IT and Information Systems. The purpose of the project was to extract manday prices and build the list of usual manday prices for particular roles that are stated in the contracts. The list aims to provide a foundation for sizing of new IT solutions before the public tender for an association of major state institutions of the Czech Republic. The result of the research is the list of usual prices for the specified roles, including blended rate, based on median and interval between quartiles, all with demonstrable links to origin contracts. The discussion states additional social factors to be considered when interpreting and using the resulting list, like the subjective influence of validators, tendency for generalization, or defensive attitude of affected vendors.
[en] Companies are increasingly obliged to collaborate with each other if they want to be innovative, and this growing transfer of knowledge takes place in a context of Open Innovation. To study these scientific-technological collaboration networks within an Open Innovation context, the case study of Iberdrola, a Spanish business group dedicated to the production, distribution and marketing of energy, has been chosen. Two methods have been used; the bibliometric method to analyze the Iberdrola scientific network, and patent data analysis, to analyze the technological network. This has been achieved by using the Scopus and PatSeer databases, and refining the data with VantagePoint software. It was found that in both cases collaboration takes place with the university, other companies, and research centers. Iberdrola has an extensive scientific and technological collaboration network throughout the world. Both scientific and technological collaboration, despite it not being common practice in companies, nevertheless, it can be concluded that Iberdrola is committed to such collaboration in following with the guidelines of its organizational model based on Open Innovation.
[en] This article proposes a field study on the applications and impacts of Industry 4.0 (I4.0) in the biopharmaceutical sector, based on an initial literature review. The world is facing a new industrial revolution that is happening at a faster pace than the previous ones. The central idea is the integration between the virtual and the real world through elements that will allow a greater degree of automation and digitization of processes The fieldwork, carried out between July and December 2019, considered semi-structured interviews with managers of pharmaceutical companies or specialists in the I4.0 theme. The interviews pointed out the need for the biopharmaceutical sector to adapt to the concepts of I4.0 and identified its main benefits and barriers. The perceptions were considerably diversified, with the benefits in operational efficiency, productivity and quality being the most scored items. Regarding the main barriers, the most highlighted by the interviewees were the need to break organizational cultural standards, regulatory requirements, the lack of organizational strategies for implementation and the lack of qualified professionals. In conclusion, this work in progress is a contribution to the biopharmaceutical sector and reinforces the imminent need for companies to adapt to this new reality.
[en] The author first outlines that the importance taken by dismantling as one of the most important activities of the nuclear sector for the years to come, is due to economic and sociological aspects: the decision of several to phase out nuclear; the development of renewable energies and the new energy transition policy, end of lifetime for many installations, political decisions. Then, the author recalls that dismantling concerns all nuclear installations, that four operators are concerned (the State, the CEA, EDF, and Orano NC), that dismantling is in fact a phase of an installation lifetime. He proposes a definition of the dismantling of nuclear installations (there is no legal definition), and proposes an overview of associated stakes: in terms of objective, political, legal, time-related, technological and innovation-related, of safety, industrial and project-management-related, human and related to occupational health, economic and financial, of management of radioactive wastes, of public information and participation, of territorial reconversion.
[en] After having outlined that the future security of supply of electric power will be an always more important issue, and recalled the simultaneous objectives which are as well essential (carbon neutrality by 2050, a still affordable electricity price), the author shows that it would be inconsistent to implement new means of production supposed to reduce CO2 emissions while questioning both other objectives again. He shows that this is the case for the present European energy policy for technical reasons and for a question of governance. Thus, he first describes how announced technological evolutions are bearing increased hazards: hazards due to the lack or weakening of wind and photovoltaic primary flows, the uncertainty related to the possibility of energy storage/de-storage to eliminate risks of wind and photovoltaic non-production, hazards related to the massive introduction of digital technologies for the large scale operation of wind and photovoltaic production means. Then, the author discusses the actual existence of a pilot for the global governance of the electric power system: discussion and critics of the roles of the different institutions, lack of consideration of expertise by decision-makers, inconsistency in the end, discussion of the French case (lack of rational justification, inconsistency with climate objectives, massive weakening of the security of supply). The author finally discusses the emergence of risks of energy withdrawal beyond occasional periodic electric power outages.
[en] With the increase in the number of Internet users and an explosion in mobile use, the digital sector is living a golden age which is reflected by an exponential growth in the number of devices connected to the Internet and by an explosion of IP traffic in telecom networks and data centers. However, this revolution is not without consequences for digital energy consumption, which is also growing at a sustained rate. According to the Shift Project, between 2013 and 2017, global digital consumption increased by 50 pc, from 2000 to 3000 TWh per year. By way of comparison, over this same period, global electricity consumption grew by just under 10 pc and reached 21,500 TWh in 2017. By 2025, digital energy consumption should continue to grow at an annual rate of 10 pc and could be between 5,700 and 7,300 TWh in 2025. While the growth in digital consumption is driven by all of its segments - terminal equipment, telecom networks, data centers and production of said equipment and infrastructure -, the production has been in recent years and will remain by 2025 the main item of digital consumption: it represents 45 pc of total consumption in the sector and this share should remain around 40 pc by 2025. The energy growth of digital is particularly strong compared to the growth in global energy consumption in all sectors: in 2017, digital technology represented around 2.7 pc of global final energy consumption at the global level and should represent in 2025 between 4.7 pc and 6 pc, almost doubling compared to 2017. The translation of this energy consumption into greenhouse gas emissions is also worrying: the digital represents 3.4 pc of total GHG emissions in 2017 or 1.8 GtCO2e and should represent 7.6 pc in 2025 or 3.7 GtCO2e. Two emerging technologies are also giving rise to strong fears in energy terms: cryptocurrencies and the Internet of Things. Cryptocurrencies based on public blockchains are indeed an engine of the growth of digital energy consumption, but to date represent a still small share of total consumption: between 60 and 200 TWh in 2018. This consumption is however often perceived as 'ineffective' with regard to the current social utility of cryptocurrencies and could be drastically reduced if 'proof of stake' systems were privileged. IoT equipment is the one whose consumption should increase the most by 2030. This growth should be mainly driven by the consumption of tens of billions of expected objects, while the additional consumption they induce upstream in telecom networks and data centers should remain weak. Production-related consumption, which is likely to be high, is not documented at this stage. In the end, the addition of a connection function to a multitude of objects should have an impact on the evolution of the overall digital consumption and the consumption of this new digital segment should therefore be studied. Faced with these challenges, the traditional response to the problems linked to the increasing energy consumption of digital technology relies mainly on energy gains linked to technological progress. Technological progress in large digital infrastructures (telecom networks and data centers) allows real unit energy gains: for example, concerning fixed access networks, PON optical fiber networks consume between 0.2 and 0.8 W / user against 3 and 5 W / user for VDSl copper networks. Nevertheless, the inefficiencies that persist in the management of infrastructures (in particular the existence in parallel of several generations of telecom networks and the non-optimization of the rate of use of equipment in data centers) and especially the increase in uses and fine internet traffic, do not allow overall consumption to be controlled. In addition, this lever does not act on energy consumption linked to the production of equipment and therefore leaves out a major item of digital consumption.
[fr]Avec un double phenomene d'augmentation du nombre des internautes et d'explosion des usages mobiles, le secteur numerique vit un age d'or qui se traduit dans les faits par une croissance exponentielle du nombre d'equipements connectes a internet et par une explosion du trafic IP dans les reseaux telecoms et les data centers. Cette revolution n'est cependant pas sans consequence sur la consommation energetique du numerique, qui croit elle aussi a un rythme soutenu. Ainsi, selon le Shift Project, en seulement cinq ans, entre 2013 et 2017, la consommation globale du numerique a augmente de 50 pc, passant de 2000 a 3000 TWh par an. A titre de comparaison, sur cette meme periode, la consommation electrique mondiale a cru d'un peu moins de 10 pc et atteignait 21 500 TWh en 2017. D'ici 2025, la consommation energetique du numerique devrait continuer a croitre a un rythme annuel de 10 pc et pourrait se situer entre 5700 et 7300 TWh en 2025. Si la croissance de la consommation du numerique est portee par l'ensemble de ses segments - equipements terminaux, reseaux telecoms, data centers et production desdits equipements et infrastructures -, la production a ete ces dernieres annees et restera a horizon 2025 le principal poste de consommation du numerique: elle represente 45 pc de la consommation totale du secteur et cette part devrait rester aux alentours de 40 pc d'ici 2025. La croissance energetique du numerique est particulierement forte comparee a la croissance de la consommation energetique mondiale tous secteurs confondus: en 2017, le numerique represente environ 2,7 pc de la consommation globale d'energie finale au niveau mondial et devrait en representer en 2025 entre 4,7 pc et 6 pc, soit un quasiment doublement par rapport a 2017. La traduction de cette consommation d'energie en emissions de gaz a effet de serre est elle aussi inquietante: le numerique represente 3,4 pc des emissions totales de GES en 2017 soit 1,8 GtCO2e et devrait representer 7,6 pc en 2025 soit 3,7 GtCO2e. Deux technologies emergentes suscitent par ailleurs de fortes craintes en termes energetiques: les crypto-monnaies et l'internet des objets. Les crypto-monnaies reposant sur des blockchains publiques constituent bien un moteur de la croissance de la consommation energetique du numerique, mais representent a ce jour une part encore faible de la consommation totale: entre 60 et 200 TWh en 2018. Cette consommation est cependant souvent percue comme 'non efficace' au regard de l'utilite sociale actuelle des crypto-monnaies et pourrait etre drastiquement reduite si les systemes de preuve de participation etaient privilegies. La consommation energetique de l'internet des objets est encore peu etudiee. On sait cependant que les equipements IoT sont ceux dont la consommation devrait croitre le plus a horizon 2030. Cette croissance devrait etre essentiellement portee par la consommation des dizaines de milliards d'objets attendus, tandis que la consommation supplementaire qu'ils induisent en amont dans les reseaux telecoms et les data centers devrait rester faible. La consommation liee a la production, qui risque d'etre elevee, n'est a ce stade pas documentee. Au final, l'adjonction d'une fonction de connexion a une multitude d'objets devrait avoir une incidence sur l'evolution de la consommation globale du numerique et la consommation de ce nouveau segment du numerique devrait, des lors, etre etudiee. Face a ces enjeux, la reponse traditionnelle aux problemes lies a la consommation energetique croissante du numerique a repose et repose encore essentiellement sur les gains energetiques lies au progres technologique. Le progres technologique dans les grandes infrastructures numeriques - reseaux telecoms et data centers - permet de reels gains energetiques unitaires: par exemple, concernant les reseaux d'acces fixe, les reseaux en fibre optique PON consomment entre 0,2 et 0,8 W/utilisateur contre 3 et 5W/utilisateur pour les reseaux cuivre VDSl. Neanmoins, les inefficacites qui perdurent dans la gestion des infrastructures (notamment l'existence en parallele de plusieurs generations de reseaux telecoms et la non-optimisation du taux d'utilisation des equipements dans les data centers) et surtout l'accroissement des usages et in fine du trafic internet, ne permettent pas de maitriser la consommation globale. Par ailleurs, ce levier n'agit pas sur la consommation energetique liee a la production des equipements et laisse donc de cote un poste majeur de la consommation du numerique. Ce document de travail, deuxieme d'une serie de trois documents, s'appuie sur les travaux presentes lors d'un cycle de seminaires sur l'impact environnemental du numerique qui s'est tenu a France Strategie en 2018-2019. (auteurs)
Report on the behalf of the Parliamentary office for scientific and technological choices on scientific and technological stakes of the prevention and management of accidental risks. Report of the public hearing of the 6 February 2020 and of the presentation of conclusions of the 20 February 2020 - Nr 2704 (National Assembly), Nr 343 (Senate)
[en] Within the context of two accidental events (fires at Notre-Dame and in the Lubrizol factory in Rouen) which required health and environmental measures for the control of the dispersion of pollutants (lead, chemical products), hearings have been held on measures and R and D orientations which can be implemented before crisis with objectives of prevention, and on crisis management on the short term. A first part of this parliamentary report presents these hearings and states a set of recommendations. Hearings are then reported, as well as the content of a meeting of presentation of the conclusions of this public hearing
[en] This book discusses the role and opportunities of hydrogen as an energy vector. It discusses energy solutions hydrogen can bring for companies, cities, countries, and interconnected or non interconnected areas. It discusses with which energy systems and in which geographical context hydrogen can distinguish itself from other solutions. Thus, it proposes an overview of hydrogen technologies (in production, storage, transport, and consumption), a macro-systemic approach (conversion and flexibility for power-to-gas, power-to-mobility, power-to-industry and power-to-power, technical-economic assessment of the hydrogen transport chain according to two scenarios, hydrogen-based mobility of a large scale), an eco-systemic approach (hydrogen-based mobility, hydrogen and insular micro-grids), an overview of global limitations (policies and regulations, social acceptance of hydrogen, environmental limitations, a half-tone example in Iceland), an overview of perspectives (uncertain future for hydrogen, extension of the thinking horizon, results of prospective models)
[en] After an overview of the possible role of hydrogen in energy transition, the authors evoke the rather late observation of the large presence of hydrogen in the nature, and the geological explorations which have been undertaken everywhere in the world. They describe and discuss the various mechanisms of production and of consumption, evoke research themes (understanding of the operation of the 'H2 system', industry) and the French potential. They finally outline that, for now, no one can say whether hydrogen can actually be a renewable primary energy source.
[en] A first report addresses the impact of the 5G technology on greenhouse gas emissions. It presents the different challenges faced with the introduction of this new standard at the international level (use of some electromagnetic frequencies), and more particularly in France by indicating the involved actors (operators, the State and its agencies, local communities, terminal manufacturers and digital content providers, companies and individuals), and some usage examples (for companies, individuals, and territorial communities), and also by briefly discussing whether 5G can avoid some emissions. It proposes a prospective-based assessment of the carbon impact which takes uncertainties, contrasted scenarios (deployment or non-deployment), and the identification of impacts on local emissions and carbon print (notably those of digital activity, terminal manufacturing and network equipment) into account. The next part discusses how to face challenges of management of the carbon impact of 5G: potential and limitations of existing instruments (regulation of the additional electric power demand, limitation of digital carbon print), integration of the climate issue into the deployment of mobile networks, and creation of means to arbitrate between different emitting practices within a carbon budget. A set of recommendations is also proposed regarding the identification of climate challenges before the deployment of technologies such as 5G, the obligation of carbon print management by operators, the taking into account of effects on energy demand and on the ETS system, the action on imported emissions related to digital (telecommunications equipment), and public information. The second document reports a study which aimed at assessing the energy footprint and the carbon print of 5G deployment in France by 2030. It proposes an overview of the history of telecommunication networks, of their technology, and of the scope of the study, a definition of scenarios and of their variants, a presentation of parameters and hypotheses of the developed model, a presentation of results of both scenarios (5G deployment or non-deployment), and a comparison of both scenarios in terms of primary energy consumption, of electricity consumption in France, and of greenhouse gas emissions.