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[en] Public administrations have in recent years developed programs of public funding for innovation to boost the competitiveness of business. The study of how companies have used these funding sources generates knowledge to improve the design of support for private innovation and to provide advice for innovative companies. This paper investigates these issues in the agri-food sector which is of particular interest as it is comprised mainly of small and medium enterprises with a wide regional presence and interaction with their local environment. A survey on technological innovation was used to estimate panel logit models with random effects, taking as dependent variables three types of funding: regional, state and European Union. The results generally show a positive relationship between innovation efforts and access to public funding, but also significant differences between types of funding and between sectors. Food companies that obtain public funding tend to have a more innovative profile than Agriculture ones. Both types of firm present higher probabilities than others companies when it comes to gaining access to regional funding, though the opposite often occurs in the case of state funding. Firm size is not significant for regional funding and no overlap was detected between regional and state funding. The financial crisis has adversely affected regional and national aid, which experienced a significant decrease in the period from 2008 to 2013.
[en] Full text: Collecting scientific evidence on the human, social and ethical dimensions in energy systems is a fundamental tool for understanding (and intervening in) the acceptance of energy technologies, the siting of energy generation facilities, and the promotion of measures for risk mitigation and safety. Furthermore, this key role of social research in energy fully aligns with proposals for more open and responsive modes of research and science policy-making, as illustrated by contemporary EU-wide policy discourses on “Science with and for society” and “responsible research and innovation”. In the fusion domain, and since 1996, a specific research programme — currently known as Socio-economic Studies, or SES — has been dealing with the social and the socio-economic dimension of fusion. The SES social research has so far focussed on generating evidence regarding the conditions for social acceptance of fusion — currently as a research endeavour and in the future as an energy source — as well as the barriers and constraints for acceptance and suitable energy governance. Stakeholder engagement, lay attitudes and media analysis and media framing are our three main fields of research. This paper presents the key challenges and findings from social research on fusion together with its very practical implications for the fusion community, such as promoting the engagement of the fusion community with stakeholders and the public, enhancing the communication strategies of fusion research, including additional variables in the economic model of the global energy system or making fusion research more responsive to societal concerns. (author)
[en] After having briefly recalled the high level of losses by Areva in 2014 (5 billions euros) which transformed this leader company into a struggling company, the author identifies the aspects proper to the company's environment which resulted in such losses (a combination of market-related, technological, regulatory, and competition-related risks), and discusses the future of the integrated industrial strategy which has been prevailing since the creation of the company within the frame of a possible agreement with EDF. She also discusses the associated turning point of the French industrial policy in the nuclear sector
[en] This PhD thesis investigates the role of energy in long-term economic growth. Chapter 1 focuses on the description of the four main hard facts of economic growth: transition from stagnation to sustained growth, Great Divergence, interdependence of energy consumption and technological change, and hierarchized-nested adaptive cycles dynamics. Then, the role of different deep-rooted causes of growth (biogeography, culture, institutions, and contingency) are studied. Chapter 2 reviews modern growth theories that focus on proximate causes such as technological change and the accumulation of physical and human capital. Unified Growth Theory (UGT) is also analyzed in this chapter. Chapter 3 presents the fundamental laws of thermodynamics and associated concepts such as exergy and entropy. It is shown that only useful exergy consumption can be considered as the fundamental cause of economic growth. Chapter 4 presents the concept of energy-return-on-investment (EROI). It is shown that maximum EROIs have already been reached at global scale for oil and gas (but not coal), so that future conventional productions will have declining EROIs. Chapter 5 shows that the higher metal requirements of renewable technologies could be potentially detrimental to the energy transition. Chapter 6 shows how the net energy constraint materializes in the short-run through energy expenditure, which is the fraction of economic output diverted to obtain energy. Chapter 7 builds a bridge between the endogenous economic growth theory and the biophysical perspective. Research started in this thesis will need further work in order to develop an UGT respecting the biophysical constraints of the real world. (author)
[fr]L'objet de cette these est d'etudier le role de l'energie dans la croissance economique de long terme. Le chapitre 1 decrit les quatre principaux faits de la croissance: la transition de la stagnation au regime soutenu, la Grande Divergence, l'interdependance entre consommation d'energie et progres technique, et la dynamique en cycles imbriques et hierarchises. Les differentes causes lointaines de la croissance (biogeographie, culture, institutions et contingence) sont ensuite etudiees. Le chapitre 2 presente les theories faisant appel a des causes dites proches, telles que le progres technique et l'accumulation de capital physique et humain. La theorie de la croissance unifiee (UGT) est egalement analysee. Le chapitre 3 presente les lois fondamentales de la thermodynamique et les concepts associes d'exergie et d'entropie. Il est alors demontre que seule la consommation de services exergetiques constitue une cause fondamentale de croissance. Dans le chapitre 4, il est etabli que les productions mondiales de petrole et de gaz (mais pas de charbon) ont deja depassees leur taux de retour energetique (EROI) maximum, si bien que les productions conventionnelles futures se feront avec un EROI decroissant. Le chapitre 5 demontre que les besoins plus importants en metaux des technologies renouvelables pourraient constituer un frein a la bonne faisabilite de la transition energetique. Le chapitre 6 montre que la contrainte d'energie nette se materialise dans le court terme par le biais des depenses energetiques (part du produit economique consomme pour obtenir de l'energie). Le chapitre 7 presente un modele theorique de croissance endogene integrant l'approche biophysique. (auteur)
[en] After having recalled that electric power transport networks have been knowing European collaboration long before the search for a European policy of energy, this note briefly describes the characteristics of the evolution of the electricity sector and the power transport network, presents the foundations of the European grid as the basis of mutual help between countries, outline that power flows are a vector of exchanges between countries, and that the transport network is a vector of mutualization of production means and of energy sources. Then, they present the ENTSO-E (European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity) as a not well known but very advanced example of European collaboration. They also outline that the electric power system at the European level is a source of innovations, but that collaboration suffers from not always consistent European energy choices.
[en] Energy is an indispensable component of human living. Renewable energy (RE) is regarded as a strategic approach to the reduction of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. Biogas is regarded as one of the most reliable forms of renewable energy capable of addressing the energy needs of many institutions. Research indicates that Ghana has enough potential in terms of feedstock for the generation of biogas at both institutional and household level. The aim of this study was therefore to assess the cost efficiency and willingness to adopt biogas technology as a sustainable source of renewable energy for boarding Senior High Schools in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana. The study was guided by a theoretical framework that focused on the technology adoption process, diffusion of innovations and a technology acceptance model. In all, forty-four schools were sampled for quantitative and qualitative research. Forty schools did not have biogas plants and were studied using the probability approach while four schools which had biogas plants were purposively selected and qualitatively analysed. Six biogas installers, commercial biogas to electricity operator, two regulatory agencies and a research institution also participated in the study. The findings of the study indicated that there is a high potential for Senior High Schools to generate enough biogas for cooking and heating based on the mean population of 1,054 students from the 40 schools sampled, with more than 80% of the students being boarders. The main sources of cooking/heating energy at the school level were LPG at 25.9%, firewood at 10.3% and charcoal at 10.3%. Eighty-eight (88) percent of institutions without biogas expressed their willingness to adopt biogas technology but are constrained by access to finance and institutional bottlenecks. Cost efficiency variables indicate that initial cost of adopting biogas as a supplementary energy for cooking, averages GHS 8,000. Biogas has the potential to reduce waste and supplement energy for cooking purposes. These two elements constitute major budget allocations of Senior High Schools. The main constraints in adopting biogas technology as observed by user institutions were the high initial installation and maintenance cost, low gas production and accessing technical experts for routine maintenance. The study recommends government financial support in the form of subsidies to help provide biogas systems at minimum cost. This will facilitate more schools to adopt biogas technology and reduce the financial burden they incur in waste management and energy consumption. (author)
[en] Written and published few days before the opening of the Copenhagen Conference, this article discusses the main characteristics which negotiations on climate should have in order to obtain a good agreement: to define universal, ambitious, and credible commitments. After having identified the new requirements, the authors propose an assessment of the Kyoto Protocol by outlining that most of industrialised countries will not reach Kyoto objectives, and by discussing the application of Kyoto flexibility mechanisms. Then, they discuss the scientific context by recalling the content of the fourth IPCC report. They discuss the commitment of industrial countries for the second period of the Kyoto protocol in the case of the European Union, and in terms of differences between developed countries, and of implication of emerging countries. The issue of the definition of a legal framework is then addressed by outlining the complexity of the negotiation, and by discussing the fact that the USA do not want to remain within the Kyoto protocol framework. Then, the importance of the negotiation on climate is highlighted and commented, and the implementation of actions of struggle against climate change is also addressed (adaptation actions, mitigation actions in developing countries, struggle against deforestation, technology transfers). The financing issue is then addressed in terms of economic assets of the struggle against climate change, and of North-South financial transfers. The authors finally discuss the possible content of the Copenhagen agreement
[en] This research thesis addresses the search for a regulation system for polluting activities at the origin or atmospheric pollution, mainly pollution by ozone. The author notably studies answers given by the EU during the 1990's to this problem in order to assess these pollutions. After a presentation of the economic framework necessary to solve this issue, the author reports his search for evolutions of this framework. Through an economic analysis, tools of environmental policies can be classified according to two typologies: market instruments (tax or negotiable emission permits), and regulatory instruments. These instruments are compared, notably in terms of efficiency with respect to their ability to promote technological innovation. Then, the author focuses on tensions between the public authority and industrials submitted to this regulation, and shows that job creation may become the main issue, and the protection of the environment the poor relative of public policy. In the next part, the author addresses the specific case of ozone as a controversial environmental problem which involves the public authority, and the oil, automotive and agriculture worlds. He discusses the search for legitimacy of bio-fuels.
Report on the behalf of the Parliamentary Office of assessment of scientific and technological choices on the contribution of the scientific and technological innovation and assessment to the implementation of decisions made by the COP21. Report of the public hearing of the 24 November 2016 and of the presentation of conclusions on the 22 February 2017. National Assembly Nr 4577, Senate Nr 453
[en] This report contains transcriptions of contributions to rounds tables and debates which gathered members of the Parliamentary Office, representatives of the IPCC, of French and foreign administrations in charge of climate issues, as well as representatives of various important industries (automotive, transports, agriculture, and so on). The first round table addresses the status of the implementation by States of their commitments in the support to innovation as specified during the COP21, and expected perspectives of technological disruptions in the European Union and in Southern countries. The second round table discussed sector-based technological advances in the fields of housing, mobility and agriculture to solve problems related to climate change. The third round table addressed the commitment and interaction of actors in the struggle against global warming to favour technologically feasible and socially acceptable solutions.
[en] Whereas transports are everywhere an important issue as they are related to economic development, are an industrial stake for manufacturers as well as for States (in relationship with land development), and require important investments, but also are problematic regarding health, accidents, environment, oil consumption and climate change, this study aims at proposing an overview of the situation of transports in the world, and of their recent evolution, with a focus on present concerns related to energy sources and to the global environment. It also addresses margins of flexibility related to the development and penetration of new technologies in the different transport modes with respect to stakes related to energy security and global warming. New orientations are finally proposed, and examples chosen in the North as well as in the South are evoked