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[en] The uranium geology and exploration effort in the new century was briefly reviewed, especially the organization deploy, construction of exploration capacity and system, progress and breakthrough of uranium exploration in the north China, restoration and development of uranium exploration in south China, research and innovation of uranium geology and exploration technology, analysis on uranium re source potential and development vista. A number of great and super large deposits were discovered and identified in the new century reflected the historic leap of uranium geology in China. (author)
[en] Full text: This paper shows the experience of the authors on participating in the design of several research reactors for more than 30 years. The design drivers for research reactors have been changing over the years as it is demonstrated by the leading projects envisaged by or executed in several countries. Setting aside the widespread deployment of successful standard designs such as the TRIGA reactors, the unique design requested by some countries for their national facilities, defined to be aligned with particular local interests, demonstrates the evolution of the main design drivers along the years. In general terms, in the earliest research reactor’s projects, the focus was set in developing national infrastructure, including wartime objectives. With time, the need for research activities involving thermal neutrons, thus requiring graphite thermal columns and beam tubes, led to low and mid power configurations implemented in universities or colleges pool-type facilities. Simultaneously, high power facilities were also built for providing services in the development of new fuels and materials required for expanding nuclear power programs. Nowadays, much of these facilities underwent large-scale refurbishment processes for attending niches never envisaged by the original designers, thus also demonstrating the evolution of their design drivers. In recent years, the tendency of having multipurpose facilities dominated many projects, aiming at attracting support from various communities (scientific, medical, industry), which would be also included in funding the project. Commercial applications such as the production of radiopharmaceutical drugs, with their associated revenues, compelled to develop particular designs oriented at supporting a business endeavour. This paper analyses how factors such as the availability of funds, the demanding licensing processes or the attractiveness of certain applications are dominant design drivers in current projects. (author)
[en] The research paper intended to show the impact of cultural diversity on the technological innovation process in the nuclear sector in the UAE. The study is based on both of the secondary and primary resources of information. The focal emphasis areas on the paper is to show the benefits of cultural diversity in respect of innovation process, the pouring forces for nuclear technology innovation, the nuclear innovation program, the challenges of cultural diversity in respect of innovation process and the current strategies of handling cultural diversity for executing innovation process. For the primary data, it has been gathered from a sample of the staff working in the Nawah Energy Company, which has been chosen for conducting the primary research. In the present context 75 employees of the Nawah Energy Company have been chosen for collecting the quantitative data, while 3 managers of the same organization have been selected for gathering the qualitative data. The paper recommends several strategies for improving the positive impact of the cultural diversity practices in the nuclear sector to improve the innovation process in this critical sector. These included the communication cost, access of market, creative ideas, as well as, resource allocations are the highly crucial aspects of the innovation process in the nuclear sector. (author)
[en] The term “Crystal Quality” is not well understood by design and production teams yet it directly influences all downstream processes and has a significant influence on the final product. This is particularly true in the Uranium Industry where we generally use the term “Precip Quality” to describe how well the crystals filter and dry, with consequent impact on product recycle, product purity, and energy consumption. The flow on effects of Precip Quality are numerous, not only reducing processing costs but also impacting transport and storage costs, as well as product purity penalty costs. The other very important outcome from improved Precip Quality is a cleaner working environment and the subsequent reduced OH&S risks associated with uranium production facilities. This presentation looks at The Fluid Bed Precipitation process and compares both the cost and OH&S benefits of this technology with traditional precipitation processes in use in current operating plants. (author)
[en] The author first outlines that the importance taken by dismantling as one of the most important activities of the nuclear sector for the years to come, is due to economic and sociological aspects: the decision of several to phase out nuclear; the development of renewable energies and the new energy transition policy, end of lifetime for many installations, political decisions. Then, the author recalls that dismantling concerns all nuclear installations, that four operators are concerned (the State, the CEA, EDF, and Orano NC), that dismantling is in fact a phase of an installation lifetime. He proposes a definition of the dismantling of nuclear installations (there is no legal definition), and proposes an overview of associated stakes: in terms of objective, political, legal, time-related, technological and innovation-related, of safety, industrial and project-management-related, human and related to occupational health, economic and financial, of management of radioactive wastes, of public information and participation, of territorial reconversion.
[en] The author comments and discusses the content of a study jointly performed by RTE and the IEA which addresses the conditions and prerequisites in terms of technical feasibility for an electric power system displaying a high proportion of renewable energies by 2050. These conditions are notably to preserve the stability of the power system despite the reduction of present steerable means, to develop new means of compensation of the huge variability of wind and photovoltaic sources, to completely resize security reserves in order to compensate production hazards, and to very strongly extend and strengthen transport and distribution networks in order to integrate additional flows of wind and photovoltaic electric power. Thus, after having discussed how to guarantee the system stability despite the reduction of steerable means, the author wanders whether a power system controlled by a necessarily complex artificial intelligence will be able to be absolutely cyber-secured. He outlines that validation on actual existing networks will probably be very difficult, and that the envisaged evolution globally bears risks of degradation of the security of supply of electric power. He finally states that any evolution of the power system can only be based on perfectly proven and resilient technologies.
[en] This handbook reports and re-situates the historical context of the COP negotiations by referring and sourcing information. It aims at providing a better view on the main strategic, technical and diplomatic stakes of the COP-21, but also on its scientific and political context. It is proposed under the form of questions-answers which concern basic information about the COP-21 (definition, previous decisions, what is supposed to happen there, importance, associated actors, main emitting countries, role of France), about the scientific context (scientific sources, the IPCC, IPCC results, some important data and definitions), about the international political context (treaties and conventions, national contributions, international initiatives, and so on), about the situation regarding the reduction of emissions, about the main stakes of the COP-21, and about methods of inventory of emissions.
[en] The objectives of this conference have been to provide an overview of the French situation in the field of methanization of sludge from sewage treatment plants, to recall the regulatory and organisational context of this technique, and to initiate debates and to answer to questions raised by scientific and technical contributions, returns on experience, and debates about ways to improve biogas production. Herein presented under the form of Power Point presentations, contributions discussed the prevailing emergence of digestion as an essential stage of wastewater sanitation, the regulatory context and framework of sludge digestion, preliminary considerations prior to the implementation of digestion of sludge produced by sewage treatment plants, the results of a survey performed in 2018 about the digestion on sludge from sewage treatment plants in France, problems faced during the exploitation of installations (and more particularly foaming and struvite), the methanization of sludge for a carbon neutral Sewage Treatment Plant, the mixing of digesters, the optimisation of biogas production (advanced control and assessment), and the digestion and sewage treatment plant of the future.
[en] After a recall of the methanization principle, and a presentation of some characteristics of biogas, this publication describes the different biological, chemical, asphyxiation, and explosion risks associated with this process. Then, it presents the risks and preventive measures for each step of the wet methanization process: supply with organic materials, digestion and biogas production, energy production, digestate mechanical separation, site management, installation maintenance. It finally addresses the case of dry discontinuous methanization: loading phase, unloading phase, zoning proposition. Some good design practices are indicated in appendix.
[en] After introduction and opening speeches, this document proposes several contributions presented during a congress on innovations and perspectives related to smart grids and to energy storage. A first set of contributions addressed innovations related to smart grid projects and to storage: overview of innovations and perspectives, present situation, present projects of three leader companies. A round table discussed future technologies. The second set of contributions addressed issues related to economy, regulation and international development: impacts of storage on the energy mix, the French plan for the implementation of energy storage, opportunities of Mediterranean collaboration for the coupling between renewable energies and storage, and how to make grids smarter. A round table discussed international perspectives for smart grids and energy storage