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[en] Mass transfer time relaxation parameters for condensation affect the amount of the mass transfer in the phase change. In the present study, a numerical investigation has been implemented with four different parameters for the condensation process in a thermosyphon, with the parameter of 0.1 for the evaporation process. The numerical results were compared with the experimental results to validate the numerical methods. When the mass transfer time relaxation parameter for the condensation was set to the value considering the density ratio out of the four parameters, the numerical result was in good agreement with the experimental result. This numerical process is expected to be used to predict the temperature distribution in the thermosyphon more accurately.
[en] This book gives descriptions of shell and tube heat exchanger including from, sorts, structure like shell and shell side, channel, and sliding bar, basic design of heat exchanger, flow-induced vibration, shell side condenser, tube side condenser and design of basic structure of condenser by types, selection of reboiler type, kettle type reboiler, internal reboiler, pump through reboiler, design of reboiler like kettle and internal reboiler, and horizontal and vertical thermosyphon reboiler.
[en] Two-phase closed thermosyphon (TPCT) is vertically oriented wickless heat pipe that has working fluid in the interior. The TPCT transports a large amount of heat from evaporator to condenser by phase change of working fluid, and the working fluid passively returns to evaporator by gravity. Due to these advantages of the TPCT, the TPCT is considered as method of PRHR (Passive Residual Heat Removal) system in nuclear system. Parametric studies have done to investigate the heat transfer characteristics of the TPCT. Different working fluids such as water, ethanol, methanol and acetone were used at various filling ratios and at different operating temperatures to find maximum heat transport capabilities of TPCT. Effect of heat transfer rate, filling ratio and aspect ratio were investigated. Inclined angle effect was investigated at several filling ratios and working fluids. This study is interested in silicon oil effect on the TPCT. To carry out the experiment, experimental apparatus is designed and manufactured. In design process, the TPCT operation limit is considered This study is interested in silicon oil effect on the TPCT. Experiments were carried out at three oil weight percent with three input power. Effect of oil on the TPCT is evaluated by inner wall temperature distribution and thermal resistance. In this study, silicon oil effect on TPCT was investigated. The TPCT was operated with several oil weight percent and input power. From experiment, overall, the silicon oil reduced evaporator thermal performance, but enhanced condenser thermal performance. However, the TPCT total thermal performance was reduced by 100 c St silicon oil
[en] Solar energy is one of the promising resources of renewable energy. It is of particular interest due to the energy shortage and environment pollution problems. Water heating by solar energy for domestic use is one of the most successful and feasible applications of solar energy. The thermosyphon SDHWS and the loop type thermosyphon systems are widely used for domestic hot water system. The loop type thermosyphon is a circulation device for transferring the heat produced at the evaporator area to the condenser area in the loop by a working fluid. The system has the advantage of high heat transfer rate. A phase change of the working fluid occurs at the evaporator section and the vapor is transported to the condenser by the density gradient. The loop type thermosyphon collector can be made of smaller area and has higher efficiency than the present thermosyphon SDHWS. In this study, the operating characteristics of various working fluids being used have been identified. The working fluids employed in the study were ethanol, water and a binary mixture of ethanol and water. The volume of working fluid used in this study were 30%, 40%, 50%, 60% and 70% of evaporator volume. An increased heat was applied with the increased volume of working fluid. It is observed that, in the thermosyphon with low volume of working fluid, such as 30% or 40%, the fluid was dried out. The average efficiency of the loop type thermosyphon was 46% with high solar irradiation and 43% with low irradiation. The flow pattern and mechanism of the heat transfer were identified through this study. Flow patterns of the binary mixture working fluid were also investigated, and the patterns were recorded in the camera. The system parameters were calculated using the thermal performance data. Modelling of the system was carried out using PSTAR method and TRNSYS program
[en] This paper presents an experimental investigation on the heat transfer characteristics of a vertical flat thermosyphon (VFT). Several tests were performed to assess the effects of filling ratios, hydraulic radius, working fluid, and aspect ratio (Le/4HR) at a vertical orientation on the heat transfer characteristics of the VFT. It was found that the filling ratios and hydraulic radius affect heat flux: while the aspect ratios of VFT increased, the heat flux decreased. In addition, the working fluid changed from water and ethanol to R123 as the heat flux increases
[en] Carbon steel is a sturdy but inexpensive material and is preferred to copper or stainless steel wherever a lower cost is desirable. However, carbon steel-water combination is known to be incompatible for heat pipes due to generation of non-condensible gases during operation. The life time of the carbon steel-water heat pipe was tested based on the Arrhenius model using accelerated life-test scheme. Mass generation of the non-condensible gas was estimated by measuring axial temperature distribution of the heat pipes. The test was conducted with 8 heat pipes and 2 thermosyphons with 1.2-m length and 2.54-cm outer diameter in an elevated temperature range, 165∼250 .deg. C. From the test results, the heat pipe with a chemical retardant added in the working fluid exhibited about 5 years of life time, which was much longer than the one without the additive.
[en] This study aims to experimentally investigate the heat transfer characteristics of a thermosyphon using nanofluids. A thermosyphon with three individual pipes, which share the internal volume of the evaporator section, was designed, and its performance was tested for various charge amounts, input powers of the evaporator section's heater, and concentrations of working fluids. The optimized charge amount of the thermosyphon using distilled water was 30%, and the thermal resistance of the thermosyphon with TiO2 nanofluid was 18.1% lower than that with Ag nanofluid. In addition, the heat transfer performance of the thermosyphon with TiO2 1% was optimized at an input power of 300W at the evaporator section's heater and a charge amount of 30%
[en] The critical heat fluxes (CHFs) of two-phase closed thermosyphons with and without fins were studied. The thermosyphons were fabricated using 1.25-mm-thick iron tubes with inner diameters of 16, 21 and 26 mm. The lengths of the evaporator, adiabatic, and condensation sections were 20, 10 and 20 cm, respectively. Pure water, ethanol, and R134a refrigerant were used as the working fluids with 50 % filling rate of the evaporation length. CHF data when using fins of different thicknesses (1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mm), radii (5, 10 and 15 mm), and spacing (10, 20 and 30 mm) were recorded. The CHF increased with the fin thickness and radius but decreased with the increase in fin spacing. In addition, the CHF increased with the diameter of the thermosyphon tube. Overall, the CHF of thermosyphons with fins was higher than that of thermosyphons without fins regardless of the working fluid
[en] The present study shows the experimental and modeling results of the cooling system using nanofludic loop thermosyphon. The experimental results show that nanofluid is not effective for small scale cooling system. The heat transfer performance is not much improved with the current small scale loop system comparing with the convectional water based loop system. In this study, various effects of nanofluids such as the concentration, the kind of particle, host fluid, and heat capacity and so on were investigated. With nanofluid as the working fluid, the flow instability was improved at a certain concentration
[en] The present study used TiO2-nanofluid with different volume ratios as the working fluids of a thermosyphon and grooved heat pipe and investigated various parameters such as volume concentration of nanoparticles, orientation, heat flux, and cooling media. Further, the present study used nanofluids and dispersed TiO2-nanoparticles into pure water with each cross-blended concentration of 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.5%, and 1%. The authors observed the best heat transfer performance in the 0.05% concentration with thermosyphon. The present study presents the enhancement of heat transfer performance with TiO2-nanofluids, and fabricated a heat pipe from a straight stainless steel tube with an outer diameter and length of 10 and 500 mm, respectively. At the optimum condition for the pure refrigerant, the thermosyphon with 0.05% TiO2-nanoparticle concentration gave 1.40 times higher efficiency than that of pure water