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[en] This book gives descriptions of shell and tube heat exchanger including from, sorts, structure like shell and shell side, channel, and sliding bar, basic design of heat exchanger, flow-induced vibration, shell side condenser, tube side condenser and design of basic structure of condenser by types, selection of reboiler type, kettle type reboiler, internal reboiler, pump through reboiler, design of reboiler like kettle and internal reboiler, and horizontal and vertical thermosyphon reboiler.
[en] Solar energy is one of the promising resources of renewable energy. It is of particular interest due to the energy shortage and environment pollution problems. Water heating by solar energy for domestic use is one of the most successful and feasible applications of solar energy. The thermosyphon SDHWS and the loop type thermosyphon systems are widely used for domestic hot water system. The loop type thermosyphon is a circulation device for transferring the heat produced at the evaporator area to the condenser area in the loop by a working fluid. The system has the advantage of high heat transfer rate. A phase change of the working fluid occurs at the evaporator section and the vapor is transported to the condenser by the density gradient. The loop type thermosyphon collector can be made of smaller area and has higher efficiency than the present thermosyphon SDHWS. In this study, the operating characteristics of various working fluids being used have been identified. The working fluids employed in the study were ethanol, water and a binary mixture of ethanol and water. The volume of working fluid used in this study were 30%, 40%, 50%, 60% and 70% of evaporator volume. An increased heat was applied with the increased volume of working fluid. It is observed that, in the thermosyphon with low volume of working fluid, such as 30% or 40%, the fluid was dried out. The average efficiency of the loop type thermosyphon was 46% with high solar irradiation and 43% with low irradiation. The flow pattern and mechanism of the heat transfer were identified through this study. Flow patterns of the binary mixture working fluid were also investigated, and the patterns were recorded in the camera. The system parameters were calculated using the thermal performance data. Modelling of the system was carried out using PSTAR method and TRNSYS program
[en] Carbon steel is a sturdy but inexpensive material and is preferred to copper or stainless steel wherever a lower cost is desirable. However, carbon steel-water combination is known to be incompatible for heat pipes due to generation of non-condensible gases during operation. The life time of the carbon steel-water heat pipe was tested based on the Arrhenius model using accelerated life-test scheme. Mass generation of the non-condensible gas was estimated by measuring axial temperature distribution of the heat pipes. The test was conducted with 8 heat pipes and 2 thermosyphons with 1.2-m length and 2.54-cm outer diameter in an elevated temperature range, 165∼250 .deg. C. From the test results, the heat pipe with a chemical retardant added in the working fluid exhibited about 5 years of life time, which was much longer than the one without the additive.
[en] This study aims to experimentally investigate the heat transfer characteristics of a thermosyphon using nanofluids. A thermosyphon with three individual pipes, which share the internal volume of the evaporator section, was designed, and its performance was tested for various charge amounts, input powers of the evaporator section's heater, and concentrations of working fluids. The optimized charge amount of the thermosyphon using distilled water was 30%, and the thermal resistance of the thermosyphon with TiO2 nanofluid was 18.1% lower than that with Ag nanofluid. In addition, the heat transfer performance of the thermosyphon with TiO2 1% was optimized at an input power of 300W at the evaporator section's heater and a charge amount of 30%
[en] The present study shows the experimental and modeling results of the cooling system using nanofludic loop thermosyphon. The experimental results show that nanofluid is not effective for small scale cooling system. The heat transfer performance is not much improved with the current small scale loop system comparing with the convectional water based loop system. In this study, various effects of nanofluids such as the concentration, the kind of particle, host fluid, and heat capacity and so on were investigated. With nanofluid as the working fluid, the flow instability was improved at a certain concentration
[en] This study concerns the performance of condensing heat transfer in two-phase closed thermosyphons with various helical grooves. Distilled water, methanol, ethanol have been used as the working fluid. In the present work, a copper tube of the length of 1200mm and 14.28mm of inside diameter is used as the container of the thermosyphon. Each of the evaporator and the condenser section has a length of 550mm, while the remaining part of the thermosyphon tube is adiabatic section. A experimental study was carried out for analyzing the performances of having 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 helical grooves. A plain thermosyphon having the same inner and outer diameter as the grooved thermosyphons is also tested for the comparison. The type of working fluid and the numbers of grooves of the thermosyphons with various helical grooves have been used as the experimental parameters. The experimental results have been assessed and compared with existing theories. The results show that the type of working fluids are very important factors for the operation of thermosyphons. And the maximum enhancement (i.e. the ratio of the heat transfer coefficients the helical thermosyphons to plain thermosyphons) is 1.5∼2 for condensation
[en] A study related to understand the characteristics of the heat pipe and thermosyphon was performed to evaluate their applicabilities to the current PSDRS (Passive Safety Decay heat Removal System) in the KALIMER (Korea Advanced LIquid MEtal Reactor) design. The possible heat transfer rate by the heat pipe and thermosyphon was reviewed to compare the required capability in the PSDRS. A quantitative comparison was done between the current PSDRS and the modified PSDRS with the thermosyphon. The result showed the dominant heat transfer rate in the air channel, e.g. radiation or convection, is different from each other. The total heat transfer rate is not sensitive to the operating temperature of the thermosyphon. The heat removal by the air in the modified case is relatively reduced and the resultant outlet temperature appears less than above 10 .deg. C. A reversal heat transfer between the air and the thermosyphon may exist near the exit of the active heat transfer region. The total heat transfer rate by the modified case showed about 20∼40% increase relative to the reference one
[en] The purpose of this study is to develop the CNS facility in Hanaro to extend the scope of the neutron utilization and to carry out the works impossible by thermal neutrons. According to the project schedule, the establishment of the CNS concept and the basic design are performed in the phase 1, and the elementary technologies for basic design will be developed in the phase 2. Finally in the phase 3, the design of CNS will be completed, and the fabrication, the installation will be ended and then the development plan of spectrometers will be decided to establish the foothold to carry out the basic researches. This study is aimed to produce the design data and utilize them in the future basic and detail design, which include the estimation and the measurement of the heat load, the code development for the design of the in pile assembly and the heat removal system, the measurement of the shape of the CN hole, the performance test of thermosiphon and the concept of the general layout of the whole system etc.. (author)
[en] The present study was conducted to determine flooding heat transfer limitation of a two-phase closed thermosyphon using PFC as working fluid. The variables such as pipe inner diameter, working fluid property, operating temperature were examined by way of analytic method. Comparison of experimental data on flooding heat transfer limitation shows a fairly good agreement with the analytic results. An expression for flooding maximum heat transfer rate was formulated as a function of Bond number and saturation pressure and written as follows ; Qmax = 0.989 · Ps0.286 · Bo1.74
[en] The objective of this study is to obtain the performance test data for the passive residual heat removal heat exchanger being designed to remove the decay heat with combined effects of the natural circulation of water by means of thermosyphon at the inside and the natural convection of air at the outside. Through the tests, the following results were obtained : (1) The thermosyphon flow between the heater and the finned tubular heat exchanger was smoothly established and flow rates of the thermosyphon were in good agreement with theoretical values. (2) Maximum heat removal rate per unit length of heat exchanger at equilibrium state were measured as 405 W/m for single bundle and 285 W/m for multi-bundle. (3) Natural convective heat transfer coefficients of air at the heat exchanger were ranging from 6 W/m2 K to 15 W/m2 K. 35 figs, 2 tabs, 8 refs. (Author)