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[en] In the last few decades the title Convention developed to an important player in the field of air pollution abatement. In a series of articles attention will be paid to the organization and the activities of the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution. In this part the focus will be on the Executive Body
[nl]In Nederland zijn, war luchtverontreiniging betreft, de activiteiten onder de EU meer bekend dan die onder de Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP). Toch zijn het EU Clean Air For Europe (CAFE) programma, de Thematische Strategie Luchtverontreiniging en de Nationale Emissieplafonds (NEC) richtlin ondenkbaar zonder de Convention on LRTAP. De werkwijze van de Conventie bestaat uit het maken van reductieafspraken op basis van wetenschappelijke kennis. De kennis die onder de Conventie wordt vergaard, vindt zijn weg in tal van fora. Om de Conventie en wat zij doet, meer voor her voetlicht te brengen wordt een serie artikelen gestart over her werk onder en van de Conventie. Dit artikel leidt de serie in door in grote lijnen te schetsen hoe de Conventie in elkaar zit en zal aandacht besteden aan het ontstaan van en werkwijze binnen de Conventie en aan het hoogste orgaan van de Convention on LRTAP, de Executive Body
[en] In a bilateral trade framework, we examine the impact of tariff reduction on the optimal pollution tax and social welfare when pollution is transboundary. Strategic considerations lead countries to distort their pollution tax in the non-cooperative equilibrium. Trade liberalization changes the distortion, and consequently the pollution tax and welfare, in ways that depend on the extent to which pollution is transboundary. We find that when the pollution damage parameter is sufficiently small (large), bilateral tariff reduction always decreases (increases) the pollution tax, irrespective of the value of the transboundary pollution parameter. However, when the pollution damage parameter takes intermediate values, bilateral tariff reduction decreases the pollution tax if and only if the transboundary pollution parameter is sufficiently large (or even sufficiently small, in certain cases). Moreover, with pollution being transboundary, the impact of trade liberalization on welfare is non-monotonic and concave. The greater the extent to which pollution crosses borders, the more likely is trade liberalization to reduce welfare
[en] At present great number of river waters suffers from urban, industrial and agricultural pollutions. Inorganic and radioactive contaminants in the natural waters can be attributed to both-natural and anthropogenic sources and are of great significance to the water quality. The influence of industrial or agricultural discharges is of great danger to the river and creates high risk to the river environment. Analytical results of a water sample collected from a river could give information only on the momentary water status but continues monitoring of river water in a uniform and systematic way could give a complex ecological assessment of the environment. Their pollution is not confined to the state boundaries and will affect the neighboring downstream countries. This is the main reason for providing of cooperative investigations of common rivers in order to assess the possible transborder risk. Tunca (Tundja) is a transboundary river shared between Bulgaria and Turkey. The atershed of the river belongs to the East-Aegean Basin. Tundja is the largest affluent of the river Meric that joins the main river within Turkish territory. The Meric (Maritsa) is, with a length of 480 km, the longest river that runs solely in the interior of the Balkans. It has its origin in the Rila Mountains in Western Bulgaria, flowing southeast between the Balkan and Rhodope mountains, past Plovdiv, to Edirne, Turkey. A small section of the northern branch of the river runs entirely in Turkey The Arda is a river whose source lies in the Bulgarian Rhodope Mountains near the town of Smolyan, flowing 290 kilometers eastward past Kardzhali and Ivaylovgrad and through Greece in the northern portion of the Evros prefecture including Kastanies. It then enters the Meric (Greek: Evros) just west of Edirne, Turkey. The purpose of this study is to measure natural radioactivity and some elements in the surface waters, sediments taken from Meric, Arda and Tunca Rivers in Turkey. Total of 29 river waters, 15 coast sediments samples were collected from these rivers in dry season in 2007. In river water samples, pH, mV and conductivity values were measured and alkalinity content was determined titrimetrically. The uranium concentrations in the river water samples were measured using uranium analyzer. Gross-α and gross-β radioactivity levels in the samples were determined. Gross radium isotopes were separated using the barium sulphate co-precipitation method and then the radioactivity of gross radium isotopes was measured by ZnS(Ag) alpha scintillation counter. Natural radioactivity level in the samples was also determined by gamma spectrometer system.
[en] This paper is intended to analyze CO2 transmission between Japan and South Korea through international trade based on 1990 and 1995 international input-output data. It applied a residual-free structural decomposition method proposed by Chung and Rhee [Chung, H.S., Rhee, H.C., 2001. A residual-free decomposition of the sources of carbon dioxide emissions: a case of the Korean industries. Energy 26 (1), 15-30] to emission-related international input-output analysis for the first time in the decomposition studies. This paper is a case study regarding the manner and the extent to which CO2 emissions are influenced by international trade between Japan (an Annex I country) and South Korea (a non-Annex I country), which is of particular interest for the carbon leakage issue. In this paper, we attempted to show which factors contributed to the changes in emission of the major greenhouse gas in South Korea and Japan. The changes in emission are analyzed in terms of emission intensity, input techniques, demand composition, and trade structures. According to our analysis, South Korea, a non-Annex I country, has more energy-intensive production structures than Japan, an Annex I country. South Korea's trade pattern with Japan reflects these production features, resulting in the Korea's comparative advantage in emission intensive products, though the degree has somewhat mitigated in 1995 compared to 1990. (author)
[en] This paper investigates a second-best trade agreement between two countries that takes the distortion arising from their non-coordinated environmental policies into consideration. In a reciprocal-markets model with bidirectional transboundary pollution, we find that if the transboundary pollution is sufficiently strong, the second-best trade agreement requires that both countries subsidize the imported goods whose consumption gives rise to pollution. We also find that a bilateral tariff reduction is beneficial to the global environment. (author)
[en] The growing interest in coal exploration and development in southeastern British Columbia can be attributed to the favourable price outlooks for metallurgical coal and coalbed methane (CBM). The East Kootenay contains 3 coalfields, namely the Crowsnest, Elk Valley and Flathead, which combined contain over 50 billion tonnes of coal and 19 trillion cubic feet of CBM resource. Cline Mining is in the pre-application phase of the development of a metallurgical coal mine, and BP Energy Canada plans to begin exploration of a $3 billion CBM project in the Crowsnest Coal field. However, future development may be affected by the breakdown of negotiations between Montana and British Columbia regarding a joint environmental framework for the Flathead River ecosystem, an area in southern East Kootenay that spans both Montana and British Columbia. Development may also be affected by a United States statute known as Pakootas v. Teck Cominco Metals, in which the United States Environmental Protection Agency had ordered Teck Cominco to carry out a remediation feasibility study on slag discharged from a Canadian smelter up the Columbia River that had leached heavy metals in U.S. waters. This article described the political pressure that coal and CBM companies will face from the various forces organized against Flathead development. Although Montana does not have any legal means by which it can stop coal and CBM projects in British Columbia on a case-by-case basis, Montana could request that the State Department refer a question to the International Joint Committee, which could lead to a report of recommendations. Such a report could act as a catalyst to various project opponents. 6 refs., 2 figs
[en] Canada and the United States committed to reducing the impact of transboundary air pollution through the United States-Canada Air Quality Agreement (AQA) in 1991. Specific objectives related to reducing the emissions of the acid rain precursors sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) were established, as well as commitments to reduce volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and ozone-forming air pollutants. This progress report discussed new actions undertaken by both countries in the last 2 years to address transboundary air pollution, acid rain, and ozone depletion. Air quality efforts made by government agencies were outlined, and details of scientific and technical programs were outlined. Acid deposition monitoring and modelling techniques were discussed, as well as methods used to ensure compliance. Additional control measures and indicative reductions were also provided. Emission inventories and trends were presented, as well as details of individual research programs in the Great Lakes Basin airshed and the Georgia Basin-Puget Sound international airshed. It was concluded that both countries remain committed to the AQA. 2 tabs., 39 figs.
[en] Full text: In the frames of this work, an analysis of meteorological situations in Siberia was made for different periods of aircraft measurements. Since a clearly pronounced zonal airflow is not observed over the whole territory of Russia in the troposphere at any level and in any season, in accordance with the plan of the AEROSIB-YAK project, possible zones of the west-eastern transport of air masses along 60 N were determined for different seasons. The criteria of favorable and unfavorable conditions for the aircraft measurements of component concentrations were developed. The most informative meteorological elements were determined and then monitored during the first flight campaign from 11 to 14 April 2006. The most probable lines of air masses (lines of flows) were determined for the region of aircraft measurements. A technology of providing starting meteorological data was developed, and a preliminary modeling of pollution transport with the aid of the developed system of predicting changes in meteorological parameters was performed with the use of a special version of the MM5 model. During the work at the AEROSIB-YAK project, the data of the NCEP / NCAR and NCEP / DOE reanalyzes were used to create the archives (bases) of meteorological data. The system of predicting changes in meteorological parameters was tested during an active phase of the flight campaign over Novosibirsk-Yakutsk in the frames of the YAK-AEROSIB project; the aircraft measurements were taken from 11 to 14 April 2006. Using the meteorological data-provision system during these measurements, about 900 fields of prediction of selected meteorological elements were calculated for the period April 7-14, 2006, for the areas under study (10 W - 140 E and 45-75 N) with the aid of the hydrodynamic model MM5 adapted to the project objective. Different mechanisms that influence distribution of minor species in the free troposphere over the above-mentioned regions are under analysis. These mechanisms are the following: a vertical transport of polluted air from the lower troposphere caused by local pollution sources, subsiding of sub-stratospheric air during cold-air intrusions, vertical exchange in frontal areas, etc. Individual contributions into the observed overall balance of minor gases over the Northern Eurasia will be estimated due to long range transport and local atmospheric emissions of pollutants. In the future, proceeding with this work, we are planning to estimate the volume of air transport from Europe to the Northern Pacific region and Japan, in particular, and to estimate the contributions made by both natural and man-made sources, including forest and peat bog fires. (author)
[en] Long-range radionuclide air transfer of radionuclide after the first nuclear explosions and after accidents at nuclear installations is observed. Data on transport of radionuclides by the Yenisej river, Pripyat' river, Sozh river, Iput' river, Besed' river are given. The time of radionuclide transfer from Irish sea to Baltic and Barents sea has been defined using change of a relationship of isotopes Cs 134/Cs 137. (authors)