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[en] Highlights: • Comparison of production-based and consumption-based accounting of CO2 emissions. • Longitudinal analysis of the newest data for 110 countries for the last 15 years. • Results show only small differences between PBA and CBA. • Countries with large imports have higher CBA/PBA ratios. • The CBA/PBA ratio is positive for countries with high energy efficiency. - Abstract: Lately, a controversial debate has evolved regarding consumption-based accounting (CBA) versus production-based accounting (PBA) of CO2 emissions. So far, the debate has been predominately theoretical and has inspired only a few empirical studies. In this article, we compare production-based versus consumption-based emissions, and for the first time analyze reasons for the differences. In particular, we focus on whether there is evidence for carbon leakage from developed to developing countries. We use the newest available data for 110 countries and analyze whether there are differences between OECD and non-OECD members. Furthermore, we compare the within-country differences for the time span of 1997 to 2011 via fixed effects panel regression models in order to investigate whether increases in GDP per capita result in higher imported emissions. The results suggest that for most countries the differences depending on accounting schemes are small. Furthermore, we find no evidence for carbon leakages. In particular, the ratio of CBA to PBA is not driven by OECD membership or GDP per capita. Instead, the ratio is greater for countries with high energy efficiency and high import rates. Given the small differences between PBA and CBA, we suggest keeping the production-based accounting of CO2 emissions.
[en] Highlights: • Convergence in CO2 emissions per capita is studied in a global sample of countries during 1970– 2014. • A Spatial Green Solow model is developed to accommodate spatial dependence in emissions data. • A convergence equation which has the form of a Dynamic Spatial Durbin model is estimated. • Spatial multi-regime panel data models are developed to study heterogeneous convergence dynamics • Spatial non-parametric techniques are used to analyze convergence dynamics across clubs. - Abstract: This research analyzes the evolution of CO2 emissions per capita in a sample of 141 countries during the period 1970–2014. The study develops a spatially augmented Green Solow model by taking into consideration technological externalities and interdependence in the process of production, which ultimately implies that CO2 emissions in an economy are affected by the economic characteristics in neighboring countries. The empirical model predicts convergence in CO2 emissions among countries which is examined by means of modern dynamic spatial panel econometric techniques. The multimodal distribution of the CO2 emissions is consistent with the existence of three spatial clubs. The space-time dynamics of the three clubs are analyzed by means of the Local Directional Moran Scatterplot and spatial panel model with heterogeneous parameters. Our analysis reveals the hypothesis of spatial convergence clubs is more consistent with the data than the hypothesis of conditional convergence.
[en] After performing a first multi-model exercise in 2015 a comprehensive and technically more demanding atmospheric transport modelling challenge was organized in 2016. Release data were provided by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization radiopharmaceutical facility in Sydney (Australia) for a one month period. Measured samples for the same time frame were gathered from six International Monitoring System stations in the Southern Hemisphere with distances to the source ranging between 680 (Melbourne) and about 17,000 km (Tristan da Cunha). Participants were prompted to work with unit emissions in pre-defined emission intervals (daily, half-daily, 3-hourly and hourly emission segment lengths) and in order to perform a blind test actual emission values were not provided to them. Despite the quite different settings of the two atmospheric transport modelling challenges there is common evidence that for long-range atmospheric transport using temporally highly resolved emissions and highly space-resolved meteorological input fields has no significant advantage compared to using lower resolved ones. As well an uncertainty of up to 20% in the daily stack emission data turns out to be acceptable for the purpose of a study like this. Model performance at individual stations is quite diverse depending largely on successfully capturing boundary layer processes. No single model-meteorology combination performs best for all stations. Moreover, the stations statistics do not depend on the distance between the source and the individual stations. Finally, it became more evident how future exercises need to be designed. Set-up parameters like the meteorological driver or the output grid resolution should be pre-scribed in order to enhance diversity as well as comparability among model runs.
[en] Since the Clean Air Act Amendment (1990), the markets of tradable emission permits are becoming increasingly attractive. Very few works on the functioning of these markets have analyzed the participation of citizens in order to buy and retire emissions permits. This dissertation aims to study the effects of allowing citizens to participate in markets of tradable emission permits. In the first chapter, we show that when the pollution cap is strictly greater than the optimal one, citizen's participation is socially beneficial and never socially harmful, even in the presence of free-riding. In the second chapter, based on operating pollution markets in the US and Europe, we highlight the emergence of a demand to purchase and cancel emissions permits. In the third chapter, we show how it is possible to partly solve the free rider problem by subsidizing the citizen's demand. Moreover, we argue that an ethics based on the freedom and the sovereignty of citizens commands to allow citizens participation in pollution market. In the fourth chapter, we focus on citizen's participation in pollution markets with a regional pollution model. Such an implication depends on the value of transfer coefficients. (author)
[fr]Depuis l'amendement du Clean Air Act (1990), les marches d'echange de permis d'emissions connaissent un succes grandissant. Un aspect peu etudie de leur fonctionnement est la participation des citoyens pour acheter et retirer des permis d'emissions. Cette these vise a etudier l'opportunite d'ouvrir le marche de permis aux citoyens et a analyser les implications de leur participation. Dans un premier chapitre, nous revenons sur le debat taxe versus marche. Nous montrons que lorsque le plafond de pollution est strictement superieur au plafond de pollution optimal, la participation des citoyens est socialement benefique et n'est jamais socialement dommageable, meme en presence de comportement de passager clandestin. Dans le deuxieme chapitre, a partir d'exemples de marches mis en place aux etats-Unis et en Europe, nous mettons en evidence l'emergence d'une demande de retrait de permis de la part des citoyens et des ONG environnementales. Dans le troisieme chapitre, nous montrons qu'il est possible de lutter efficacement contre le probleme de passager clandestin en subventionnant la demande de retrait de permis des citoyens. Par ailleurs, l'intervention d'une ethique basee sur un postulat de liberte et de souverainete conduit a recommander l'autorisation des citoyens a participer au marche. Enfin, le dernier chapitre analyse la participation des citoyens dans le cadre d'un modele de pollution regionale et apprecie leur implication selon la valeur des parametres des coefficients de transferts de pollution. (auteur)
[en] Highlights: • A spatio-temporal EKC for seven air pollution emissions is tested at the local level. • Strong and significant spatial spillovers drive the pollution-income hypothesis. • Pollution abatement control could be benefit from collective policy efforts across adjacent municipalities. - Abstract: This paper contributes to the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) literature, which posits an inverted U-shaped relationship between pollution and income, but from a spatial perspective. We explore several spatial statistical and econometric analyses to account for spatial dependence in emissions from carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, particulate matter (2.5 and 10) and total suspended particulates between all 290 Swedish municipalities. Our results suggest the EKC significantly holds for all but one pollutant (i.e. carbon monoxide) and that this relationship is significantly characterized by spatial dependence. Specifically, we find significant neighbourhood effects as well as significant positive economic spillovers at low income which turns negative at high income on both within and inter-municipality air emissions. Our results and hence implications suggest transboundary pollution control policies aimed at abatement would be more effective through enhanced coordination between adjacent municipalities.
[en] Arctic-alpine tundra habitats are very vulnerable to the input of relatively small amounts of xenobiotics, and thus their level in such areas must be carefully controlled. Therefore, we collected the terrestrial widespread moss Racomitrium lanuginosum (Hedw.) Brid. in Spitsbergen in the Arctic moss lichen tundra and, for comparison, in the Arctic-alpine tundra in the Karkonosze (SW Poland). Concentrations of the elements Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Li, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn in this species and in the parent rock material were measured. We tested the following hypothesis: R. lanuginosum from Spitsbergen contains lower metal levels than the species from the Karkonosze collected at altitudes influenced by long-range transport from former Black Triangle industry. Principal component and classification analysis (PCCA) ordination revealed that mosses of Spitsbergen were distinguished by a significantly higher Na concentration of marine spray origin and mosses of Karkonosze were distinguished by significantly higher concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Li, Mn, Pb, V, and Zn probably from long-range atmospheric transport. The influence of the polar station with a waste incinerator resulted in significantly higher Co, Li, and Ni concentrations in neighbouring mosses in comparison with this species from other sites. This investigation contributes to the use of R. lanuginosum as a bioindicator for metal contamination in Arctic and alpine tundra regions characterised by severe climate habitats with a restricted number of species. This moss enables the control of pollution usually brought solely by long-range atmospheric transport in high mountains as well as in Arctic areas.
[en] Airborne pollutant characteristics, potential sources, and variation trends of cause are investigated based on the hourly air concentrations of gaseous pollutants and particulate matter from 2013 to 2016 in Lanzhou. The mean concentration of SO2, NO2, CO, 8-hO3, PM2.5, and PM10 was 25.2 ± 16.0 μg m−3, 46.5 ± 21.1 μg m−3, 1.3 ± 0.7 mg m−3, 77.8 ± 45.5 μg m−3, 58.7 ± 32.9 μg m−3, and 131.1 ± 86.2 μg m−3, respectively. The concentrations of SO2, PM10, and PM2.5 present decreasing trends while NO2, CO, and O3 present increasing trends. PM is the most frequent major pollutants with much higher value than standard limit. However, NO2 pollution had obvious trends to reach the limit and was more serious in Lanzhou compared with other Chinese cities. Relationship between air pollutants and meteorological parameters suggested that lower primary pollutants were associated with higher wind speed from north and west. Modeled back trajectory demonstrated that the transport of air masses from the Hexi Corridor and Inner Mongolia was responsible for the high concentrations of the air pollutants in wintertime, and high PM10 level in springtime was related to long-range transport of dust from desert areas of the Sinkiang and the Central Asia. Effects of local pollutant emissions and meteorological condition were preliminary analyzed. Improvement of air quality might be related to the decreasing of pollutant emissions due to strict emissions controls, and the contribution of meteorological condition was not explicit and should be further investigated.
[en] A study of precipitation chemistry was conducted for 11 years (01 January 2006–31 December 2016) in the Ciuc basin, Eastern Carpathians, Romania. The studied area is an enclosed basin, also called “the Carpathians cold pole.” All collected samples were analyzed for major cations and anions. HCO3− concentrations were calculated based on the empirical relationship between pH and HCO3−. The multiannual arithmetic mean of pH values was found to be 6.57. The lowest and highest pH values were measured in 2009 and 2013, being 6.57% lower, respectively, 7.57% higher than the multiannual mean. Only 3.31% of the studied rainwater samples indicate acidic character. In descending order, the majority of the samples are as follows: NH4+ >Ca2+ >SO42− >Cl− >HCO3− >NO3− >Na+ >K+ >Mg2+ >NO2− >H+. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed the NH4+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ contribution to the neutralization process and their sources. The anthropogenic origin of SO42− was supported by the high non-sea-salt fraction (NSSF) (~ 91%). The results of this study suggest that rainwater chemistry is strongly influenced by local natural and anthropogenic sources (agricultural activities) rather than marine sources. The pollutants in rainwater samples were mainly derived from calcareous and dolomitic soil dust and specific local climatic conditions, long-range transport, local industry, and traffic sources.