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[en] Owing to the expiration of the national 10-year period plan and the establishment of an efficient energy and resource technology R and D system, the Korean government needs to make a strategic long-term national energy and resource technology R and D plan (NERP) to cope with forthcoming 10-year period. A new NERP aims to improve the energy intensity, reduce the emissions of greenhouse gas within the United Nations framework convention on climate change (UNFCCC), and contribute to the construction of an advanced economic system. We determine the priorities in technology development for the energy efficiency and greenhouse gas control plans (EGCP), which are parts of a new NERP, by using the AHP approach for the first time. We suggest a scientific procedure to determine the priorities in technology development by using AHP
[en] Approximately 1.2 billion people lack basic access to electricity. The United Nations 'Sustainable Energy for All' initiative exemplifies the urgent need to address this issue. Recent advancements in photovoltaic, light emitting diode and battery technology have resulted in the rise of affordable and innovative household electricity technologies, however penetration rates remain low due to complexity surrounding ‘last mile’ distribution. This paper applies the diffusion of innovations theory as a framework to investigate the ‘last mile’ challenges encountered when launching a Pay As You Go Solar Home System in a region of Central East Africa. The results indicate that Pay As You Go offers the potential to deliver a disruptive positive impact with regard to increasing access to clean affordable energy for the poor, however, both the technology and business model are more complex than current alternatives and therefore require a much more developed go-to-market strategy. The cost of achieving widespread diffusion is therefore higher than similar products sold at retail, yet this is balanced by potential for a much faster rate of adoption. Finally, this paper demonstrates the applicability of the diffusion of innovations theory as a viable framework for analysing last mile challenges associated with Solar Home Systems. - Highlights: • First field level study on challenges of scaling Pay as You Go Solar Home Systems; • PAYG SHS technology and business model are more complex than current alternatives. • Requires a much more developed go-to-market strategy than corresponding products. • Potential for a much faster rate of adoption than corresponding products. • Diffusion of innovations theory is a viable framework for analysing PAYG SHS.
[en] This article undertakes an analysis of renewable energy policy at the international level. So far, such policy efforts have been carried out in a fragmented manner across various fields and without the benefit of any specific international agreements or organizations. In the two key policy areas of energy and climate, in which one would expect to find direct approaches at the international level, there have been only marginal efforts to promote renewable energy and with little direct impact-something which at first glance is rather remarkable. Initiated in the wake of the Second World Summit on Sustainable Development, in 2002 in Johannesburg, there exists for the first time a specific policy process - set in motion by the German government - which has led to some initial 'soft' instruments and institutional forms; this multilateral process, which, although parallel and independent in its approach, is proceeding nonetheless in a consensual manner similar to the UN negotiations. At the same time, several countries have taken the lead to form an international organization for renewable energy; this is presently being developed. This article examines the various policy levels as well as the roles of the significant national and international actors on the basis of a multilevel governance approach.
[en] Given the need to reduce the CO2 emissions coming from the manufacturing sector, it is important, for planning purposes, to know which countries and which manufacturing sub-sectors have the greatest potential for reducing energy use. Using data from the International Atomic Energy Agency and the United Nations Industrial Development Organization, the authors estimate trends in global decoupling of energy use and manufacturing value added, compare energy-use intensity in six country groups and estimate the potential for reducing energy use and CO2 emissions under two scenarios and compare selected sub-sector energy intensity and estimate the potential for reducing energy use CO2 emissions. The comparison of energy intensities across country groups and among countries suggests that there still remains significant potential to reduce energy use and associated CO2 emissions. The analysis of four sub-sectors in developing and transition economies also shows similar but varied potential for reducing energy use and associated CO2 emissions
[en] Despite its promising prospects, a growing global bio-energy market may have sustainability risks as well. Governing this market with respect to installing safeguards to ensure sustainable biomass production might reduce these risks. Therefore, proposals for governance systems for bio-energy are discussed in this article. The proposals are based on comparative case study research on the governance of comparable commodities. By assessing the governance system of global coffee trade, fair trade coffee, the global and the EU sugar market and Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) wood, strong and weak points of governance systems for commodities are discerned. FSC is selected as the best performing case study and serves as the proposal's basis. FSC's weaknesses are minimized by, among others, using the lessons learned from the other case studies. This results in a system consisting of two pillars, a bio-energy labelling organization (BLO) and a United Nations Agreement on Bio-energy (UNAB). Although consulted experts in the research process are critical about this system they do suggest several conditions a governance system for bio-energy should meet in order to be effective, such as a facilitative government, professional monitoring and using progressive certification combined with price premiums. These conditions have been taken into account in the final proposal
[en] This paper explores the ways in which clean energy is being governed in India. It does so in order to improve our understanding of the potential and limitations of carbon finance in supporting lower carbon energy transitions, and to strengthen our appreciation of the role of politics in enabling or frustrating such endeavors. In particular we emphasize the importance of politics and the nature of India's political economy in understanding the development of energy sources and technologies defined as ‘clean’ both by the United Nations Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and leading international actors. By considering the broad range of institutions that exert formal and informal political influence over how the benefits and costs of the CDM are distributed, the paper highlights shortcomings in the narrow way in which CDM governance has been conceptualized to date. This approach goes beyond analysis of technocratic aspects of governance – often reduced to a set of institutional design issues – in order to appreciate the political nature of the trade-offs that characterize debates about India's energy future and the relations of power which will determine how, and on whose terms, they are resolved. - Highlights: • Clean energy governance in practice is shaped by political power and influence. • Governance of clean energy requires strong institutions from local to global levels. • Un-governed areas of energy policy are often as revealing of the exercise of power as areas where there explicit policy is in place. • Climate and carbon finance interventions need to better understand the landscape of political power which characterises India’s energy sector
[en] Transforming the housing stock to a low energy performance is a key priority in the context of sustainable development and a post-carbon transition. However, in terms of its practical implementation it, firstly, faces a number of complex institutional barriers, while, secondly, involves a risk of being dominated by a narrow technocratic agenda for energy/carbon reduction that may overtake the socially progressive pursuits of housing policy. Energy efficiency strategies for the residential sector must, therefore, be multidimensional, fully synergised with housing policy, and incorporating the principles of equity, access and a balanced geographical development. This paper discusses a strategic policy framework, which was designed by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) to address those important needs in international policy. The document – Action Plan for Energy-efficient Housing in the UNECE Region – outlines a number of goals, targets and actions structured at three dimensions: (i) governance and finance, (ii) technological advancement, and (iii) access and affordability. The Action Plan provides a comprehensive and integrated framework, based on which governments can shape their own pathways towards a sustainable low-energy residential sector. - Highlights: ► Residential sector has a large potential for energy and carbon reduction. ► Energy efficiency for housing must be reconciled with socially oriented housing policy. ► Action Plan for Energy-efficient Housing in the UNECE region is presented. ► The Plan offers an integrated framework for sustainable transition to low-energy housing. ► Governance, technology, and equitable access are three key elements of the framework.
[en] An estimated 2.5 billion people remain without access to modern energy supplies. This shortfall is expected to grow as the population in developing countries continues to grow rapidly and the existing infrastructure ages. The United Nations' goal of lowering poverty by half by 2015 will not be attained unless the poor in developing countries gain greater access to basic infrastructure and services, including energy services. The key objective of this paper is to analyze trends in overseas development assistance (ODA) to the energy sector in developing countries during the period 1990-2003, relative to realized private sector investments. This analysis then forms the basis for policy recommendations for consideration by decision makers within countries that are major contributors to ODA
[en] Despite the US rejection of the Kyoto Protocol, the meeting of the parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in July 2001 has increased the likelihood that the Protocol will be ratified. This raises a number of issues concerning mitigation costs, particularly for the buyers and sellers of emission permits. In this paper, we examine how the US decision is likely to affect compliance costs for other Annex B countries during the first commitment period. We also explore the implications for US emissions. Key findings include: - Participating Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries may experience a decline in mitigation costs, but because of the banking provision contained in the Protocol, the decline may not be as great as some would suggest; - If the majority of 'hot air' is concentrated in a small number of countries in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, these countries may be able to organize a sellers' cartel and extract sizable economic rents; and; - Even in the absence of mandatory emission reduction requirements, US emissions in 2010 may be lower than their business-as-usual baseline because of expectations regarding future regulatory requirements
[en] A range of energy-economy models forecast losses to members of the Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) should the Kyoto Protocol come into force. These forecasts are a powerful influence in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change negotiations. They are used by OPEC to advance the agenda on the impacts of response measures, covertly arguing for compensation for lost oil revenues arising from implementation of the Protocol. This paper discusses this issue, and explores the key assumptions of these models and their uncertainties. Assumptions about carbon leakage, future availability of oil reserves, substitution, innovation, and capital turnover are considered. The paper suggests that losses will not affect OPEC countries equally, and that these losses are not likely to be as substantial as the models forecast. A range of policy measures are proposed to lessen any impact the Protocol may have on OPEC