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[en] Merchant investment in electricity transmission networks (MTI) is now legally allowed. Predominantly driven by the fear of underinvestment, regulators examine this possibility and given that MTI is a possibility, the regulators face a new set of questions. This paper raises and examines regulatory questions especially from a European institutional framework. The regulatory issues concern the competition effect, the ownership, access regime and the must-offer provision. The paper argues to leave light-handed unregulated MTI light handed and refrain from additional measures. In most cases, it is justified to refrain from sector-specific arrangements because competition,law, if necessary at all, will suffice. However, details matter. (author)
[en] This paper analyses the electricity supply industry in Germany, which was liberalized in April 1998. Noticeable aspects are the eligibility of all end-users, the lack of constraints on the vertical industry structure and the option for negotiated third party access. There is no sector-specific regulation. This paper argues that the vertically integrated firms concentrate on excessive network access charges, whereas the stages generation and retail appear to be relatively competitive. Empirical evidence suggests that in Germany network access charges make up a significantly higher share of end-user prices than in the UK, which is used as regulation-benchmark. (author)
[en] The electricity market in Germany is likely to undergo several significant structural changes over the years to come. Here one may think of Germany's ambitious renewable agenda, the disputed decommissioning of nuclear facilities, but also unbundling of TSO's as enforced by European regulation. This study is a scenario-based analysis of the impact of different realizations of known investment plans for transmission and generation capacity on the future German power market while accounting for internal congestion. For this analysis the static equilibrium model of the European electricity market COMPETES is deployed, including a 10-node representation of the German highvoltage grid. Results for the multi-node analysis indicate that price divergence and congestion are likely to arise in the German market as renewable additions affecting mainly the North of Germany, the debated decommissioning of nuclear facilities in the South, and the expected decommissioning of coal-fired facilities in Western Germany appear to render current investment plans for transmission capacity insufficient. The current system of singlezone pricing for the German market may therewith be compromised. However, transmission additions would not benefit all market parties, with producers in exporting regions and consumers in importing regions being the main beneficiaries. Vertical unbundling of German power companies could increase the incentive for constructing transmission lines if generation capacity would cause Germany to be a net-importing country. In case Germany remains a net-exporting country, the effects of vertical unbundling on cross-border capacity are less clear cut.
[en] Electricity transmission has emerged as critical for successfully liberalising power markets. This paper surveys the issues currently under discussion and provides a framework for the remaining papers in this issue. We conclude that signalling the efficient location of generation investment might require even a competitive LMP system to be complemented with deep connection charges. Although a Europe-wide LMP system is desirable, it appears politically problematic, so an integrated system of market coupling, possibly evolving by voluntary participation, should have high priority. Merchant investors may be able to increase interconnector capacity, although this is not unproblematic and raises new regulatory issues. A key issue that needs further research is how to better incentivise TSOs, especially with respect to cross-border issues. (author)
[en] This paper examines the electricity pool in England and Wales. The approach followed in this paper builds on the auction approach of Von der Fehr and Harbord (Von der Fehr, N.H.M., Harbord, D., 1993. Spot market competition in the UK electricity industry. Econ. J. 103, 531-546), but adds realism by allowing explicitly for multiple-unit firms and multiple periods. In a formal setting, a bidding range will be derived, by characterizing the polar cases. The more interesting lower bidding rule will be characterized in detail, providing insights in the performance of the British electricity pool. Four aspects are examined more closely: (1) the mark-up; (2) the number of firms; (3) the auction frequency (bidding flexibility); and (4) load-profile competition