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[en] In long range ultrasonic testing, a phased array probe composed of multiple identical transducers with an uniform interval of one quarter wavelength is usually used for the transmission or reception directivity control. This paper shows that the propagation directions of individual echoes can be identified in real time by displaying the inputs of a process for summing the constitution reception signals after compensating the phase difference due to the transducer interval, together with the output of the process. A constructive interference of the constitution echoes indicates a forward direction echo propagating along an intended direction while a destructive interference implies a reverse direction echo propagating along the direction opposite to the intended one
[en] n EMAT field, spiral RF coils are much more widely used when compared with solenoid coils. In the field of the magnetostrictive strip transducers for long range ultrasonic testing of cylindrical structures, however, solenoid coils has been used. This seems to be attributed to the difficulty in fabricating low frequency (i.e., large size) spiral coils. In this paper, we describe a method for fabricating spiral coil magnetostrictive strip guided wave transducers from FFC (flexible flat cable). It is demonstrated through a comparison experiment that the spiral coil transducer has much superior performance (sensitivity, SNR, and guided wave direction control capability) than the previous transducer with solenoid coils
[en] We propose rectangular type spiral coils with folded comers for the applications to low frequency guided wave magnetostrictive transducers and describe a method for making the proposed coils from insulated electrical wire such as enameled copper wire. Expressions for the electrical properties of the coils are also presented and compared with experimental measurements. An overlapped-2-channel folded-comer spiral-coil array is fabricated and applied to a magnetostrictive strip transducer generating and detecting fundamental torsional mode guided waves. From the results we conclude that the design and fabrication method make it possible to use the magnetostrictive transducers optimized for various guided wave applications and also will greatly help engineers gain easy access to the optimized transducers
[en] Separate and layered transmitting and receiving spiral coil arrays had been used for the optimized individual applications of magnetostrictive type long-range ultrasonic testing. In this study, it was demonstrated that when taking advantages of the spiral coils with the leg width reduced to be half of the previous one and of the empty spaces due to the decrease of leg width, the transmitting and receiving coil array can be arranged to form a single layer structure allowing more easy use and fabrication. Because of the number of turns of the receiving coils that is proportional to their leg width, the sensitivity of the single layer coil array was about half that of the corresponding double layer coil array while it allowed the receiving amplifier to get faster recovery from a saturation due to the main bang echo. It was also found that the two types of coil arrays have almost the same performances in the view points of signal-to-noise ratio and directivity control.
[en] Like the phase array based ultrasonic system, complicated electronics has been used for real time signal processing in the magnetostrictive long-range ultrasonic testing(LRUT) system. This study shows that the software approach including the phase compensation, noise filtering and waveform transformation takes advantage rather than the previous hardware approach. Furthermore, it is possible for the software approach to be able more flexible and efficient realtime signal processing. These results will contribute to a cost-effective LRUT system and analysis of the inspection data.
[en] The inherent background coefficients that exactly describe the background amplitudes in the scattered field have been presented for the scattering of plane acoustic waves by a system of concentrically multilayered solid and/or fluid shells submerged in a fluid. The coefficients have been obtained by replacing the mechanical surface admittance function with the zero-frequency limit of the admittance function for the analogous fluid system, where the shear wave speeds in the solid layers are set to zero. By taking advantage of the concept of incoming and outgoing waves, we find the surface admittance function for the fluid system in such a form that the analytical generalization for any number of layers and the physical interpretation are very easy. The background coefficients obtained are independent of the bulk wave speeds in the system: they depend on the mass densities and the thickness of the shells. With increasing frequency, the inherent background undergoes a transition from the soft to the rigid background. The transition frequency for the spherical system is lower than that for the cylindrical system, but the difference becomes negligible in high order partial waves. The resonance coefficients that directly describe the resonance amplitudes in the scattered field are also found, and the validity of the analysis is numerically demonstrated for the case of empty spherical shells of rubber-coated steel and aluminum submerged in water