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[en] To study the effect of irrigation with medium-to-low-quality water on an olive farm that seems to be causing salinity and/or sodicity problems in soils, and the ability of infrared spectroscopy to detect this problem. The study was conducted in an olive (Olea europaea L.) grove located in Guarromán (Jaen, Spain), on the boundary of the Sierra Morena Mountains and the Guadalquivir Depression. The olive farm is cultivated over two soil typologies, a calcareous area (carbonated) dominated by Regosols and a siliceous area with Leptosols. Typical soil physical and chemical parameters were determined, as well as near and mid infrared spectra were collected for analysis. Soil physical properties were affected by irrigation, with low infiltration rates and symptoms of structural degradation. Chemical properties were also altered, showing high pH, low amounts of organic carbon and N, and high sodium concentrations. These effects were stronger in the samples directly affected by the irrigation bulb, with the siliceous soils more affected than carbonated, probably due to the positive effect of the higher amounts of calcium in the latter. Using infrared spectroscopy, it was possible to discriminate the samples of this farm affected by sodicity from similar soil samples in Jaen province not affected. the use of medium-to-low quality irrigation water affected soil physical and chemical properties. Infrared spectroscopy could be useful for quick assessment of soil quality and soil degradation from salinity and sodicity.
[en] Highlights: • The energy potential and desiccant capacity of two HVAC systems was analysed. • Both HVAC systems served air to a spa room for 6 different climate zones. • The energy consumption of the DW-IEC system was lower than that of the DX system. • High energy savings were obtained with the DW-IEC system for hot climate zones. • These energy savings resulted in better SCOP values for the DW-IEC system. - Abstract: Air handling in buildings with high latent loads usually requires a high-energy cost to satisfy the user’s thermal comfort needs. Hybrid systems composed of desiccant wheels, DW, and indirect evaporative coolers, IEC, could be an alternative to direct expansion conventional systems, DX systems. The main objective of this work was to determine the annual energy consumption of a hybrid system with a DW activated at low temperatures and an IEC, DW-IEC system, compared to a DX system to serve air in a small building with high latent loads, such as spas. Several annual energy simulations for 6 climate zones were performed, analysing electric energy consumption, seasonal mean coefficient of performance, SCOP, and energy consumption per unit of dehumidified water, Econs, of each system. The simulations were based on experimentally validated models. The annual energy consumption of the DW-IEC system was lower than that of the DX system for the 6 climate zones, achieving significant energy savings, up to 46.8%. These energy savings resulted in better SCOP values for the DW-IEC system. Therefore, the proposed DW-IEC system has high potential to reduce energy costs, achieving the user’s thermal comfort.