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[en] Non-native grass mixtures are often used to quickly establish ground cover on highway construction sites. Because soil is often mixed with parent material, reclamation is difficult in many of these locations. The inclusion of native seeds at two roadside locations in eastern West Virginia was evaluated in this study. The field sites had among the harshest climate conditions of the state, and the intent was to evaluate the establishment of varying seed mixtures at low/moderate and high elevations. Four experimental seed mixtures (mowable areas, cool season, warm season, and high elevation) were compared to two currently used seed mixtures for erosion control. Ground cover, biomass, compaction, and soil information were monitored over three growing seasons (2015–2017). Results show that the mowable area and cool season mixtures show promise at a wide range of elevations. While the warm season mixture did meet minimum ground cover (70%) at the low elevation location, the use will be limited due to slower time to establishment; however, the inclusion of the warm season mixture will meet the need of included native species in roadside reclamation. Experimental mixtures were resilient to periods of drought and high temperature throughout the study. The high elevation seed mixture did not perform better than the other experimental seed mixtures, so its use is not recommended for right-of-way locations in West Virginia. The cool season and mowable area mixtures likely meet this need.
[en] Highlights: • Species on transplanted pavers change most on rocky reefs close to the CBD. • Away from the CBD, point source pollution has effects compared to controls. • Restoration may not be possible in long-polluted parts of estuaries. - Abstract: Populations of macro-algae and sessile invertebrates have precipitously declined in urbanised coastal waters in Australia since European occupation. Responses of healthy subtidal sessile assemblages to cumulative impacts and types of urban impacts were measured in one of the most polluted estuaries in Australia - the Derwent Estuary - by transplanting sessile communities established on pavers to locations adjacent to marinas, sewerage outfalls, fish farm cages, and stormwater discharges, each with associated controls. Reef communities translocated to sites adjacent to central urban pollution sources (within 5 km of Hobart) lost canopy-forming algae. Fish farms, marinas, and storm water drains were all characterised by higher filamentous algal cover than their controls. Marinas were associated with losses in canopy and foliose algae. Restoration of subtidal reef near highly urbanised areas is unlikely to be successful until current pollution levels are dramatically reduced.