Results 11 - 20 of 28
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[en] Large coal-fired power plants and severe air pollution are some of the most salient features in the Polish energy sector. Over 75% of the energy demand is covered by more than 100 million tonnes of coal per year. Natural gas only contributes 9%. However, it is expected that natural gas consumption will rise from 11.4 billion m3 in 1997 to 27 billion m3 in the year 2010. In addition emission standards will show some effect. At a 6% economic growth rate, emissions from the energy sector have not increased over the last few years
[en] The aim of the title plan (MOG) is to develop and market new, advanced gas appliances and equipment for the domestic and business market to compete with the use of electricity. 1 fig., 10 ills.,
[en] Several aspects with respect to energy are discussed in a special section of this magazine: the security of energy supply in a liberalized market, saving energy by outsourcing (e.g. compressed air contracting), the profits of a liberalized energy market for businesses, incentives for energy saving projects and innovations, an energy efficiency project at Ineos Silicas (producer of zeolites), and energy efficient electronic equipment
[nl]Diverse aspecten m.b.t. energie komen aan de orde in een speciaal dossier in dit nummer: veiligstellen van de energievoorziening in een vrije energiemarkt, energie besparen door uitbesteding (bv. persluchtcontracting), zakelijke markt kan profiteren van de vrijmaking van de energiemarkt, energiebesparen door innovaties en in productontwikkeling, energiebesparing bij zeolietproducent Ineos Silicas, en zuinige electronica voor energie efficiente toepassingen
[en] Recently, a small sample of six z ∼ 9–10 candidates was discovered in CANDELS that are more luminous than any of the previous z ∼ 9–10 galaxies identified over the HUDF/XDF and CLASH fields. We measure the sizes of these candidates to map out the size evolution of galaxies from the earliest observable times. Their sizes are also used to provide a valuable constraint on whether these unusual galaxy candidates are at high redshift.
[en] We identify four unusually bright (H < 25.5) galaxies from Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and Spitzer CANDELS data with probable redshifts z ∼ 7–9. These identifications include the brightest-known galaxies to date at z ≳ 7.5. As Y-band observations are not available over the full CANDELS program to perform a standard Lyman-break selection of z > 7 galaxies, we employ an alternate strategy using deep Spitzer/IRAC data. We identify z ∼ 7.1–9.1 galaxies by selecting z ≳ 6 galaxies from the HST CANDELS data that show quite red IRAC [3.6]−[4.5] colors, indicating strong [O iii]+Hβ lines in the 4.5 μm band. This selection strategy was validated using a modest sample for which we have deep Y-band coverage, and subsequently used to select the brightest z ≥ 7 sources. Applying the IRAC criteria to all HST-selected optical dropout galaxies over the full ∼900 arcmin2 of the CANDELS survey revealed four unusually bright z ∼ 7.1, 7.6, 7.9, and 8.6 candidates. The median [3.6]−[4.5] color of our selected z ∼ 7.1–9.1 sample is consistent with rest-frame [O iii]+Hβ EWs of ∼1500 Å in the [4.5] band. Keck/MOSFIRE spectroscopy has been independently reported for two of our selected sources, showing Lyα at redshifts of 7.7302 ± 0.0006 and , respectively. We present similar Keck/MOSFIRE spectroscopy for a third selected galaxy with a probable 4.7σ Lyα line at z spec = 7.4770 ± 0.0008. All three have H160-band magnitudes of ∼25 mag and are ∼0.5 mag more luminous (M 1600 ∼ −22.0) than any previously discovered z ∼ 8 galaxy, with important implications for the UV luminosity function (LF). Our three brightest and highest redshift z > 7 galaxies all lie within the CANDELS-EGS field, providing a dramatic illustration of the potential impact of field-to-field variance.
[en] Thomson optical depth τ measurements from Planck provide new insights into the reionization of the universe. In pursuit of model-independent constraints on the properties of the ionizing sources, we determine the empirical evolution of the cosmic ionizing emissivity. We use a simple two-parameter model to map out the evolution in the emissivity at z ≳ 6 from the new Planck optical depth τ measurements, from the constraints provided by quasar absorption spectra and from the prevalence of Lyα emission in z ∼ 7–8 galaxies. We find the redshift evolution in the emissivity required by the observations to be ( for a flat prior), largely independent of the assumed clumping factor CH ii and entirely independent of the nature of the ionizing sources. The trend in is well-matched by the evolution of the galaxy UV-luminosity density () to a magnitude limit ≳−13 mag, suggesting that galaxies are the sources that drive the reionization of the universe. The role of galaxies is further strengthened by the conversion from the UV luminosity density ρUV to being possible for physically plausible values of the escape fraction fesc, the Lyman-continuum photon production efficiency ξion, and faint-end cut-off Mlim to the luminosity function. Quasars/active galactic nuclei appear to match neither the redshift evolution nor normalization of the ionizing emissivity. Based on the inferred evolution in the ionizing emissivity, we estimate that the z ∼ 10 UV-Iuminosity density is 8−4+15× lower than at z ∼ 6, consistent with the observations. The present approach of contrasting the inferred evolution of the ionizing emissivity with that of the galaxy UV luminosity density adds to the growing observational evidence that faint, star-forming galaxies drive the reionization of the universe.
[en] The presence of a well-defined and narrow dust lane in an edge-on spiral galaxy is the observational signature of a thin and dense molecular disk, in which gravitational collapse has overcome turbulence. Using a sample of galaxies out to z ∼ 1 extracted from the COSMOS survey, we identify the fraction of massive (L*V) disks that display a dust lane. Our goal is to explore the evolution in the stability of the molecular interstellar medium (ISM) disks in spiral galaxies over a cosmic timescale. We check the reliability of our morphological classifications against changes in rest-frame wavelength, resolution, and cosmic dimming with (artificially redshifted) images of local galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We find that the fraction of L*V disks with dust lanes in COSMOS is consistent with the local fraction (≈80%) out to z ∼ 0.7. At z = 0.8, the dust lane fraction is only slightly lower. A somewhat lower dust lane fraction in starbursting galaxies tentatively supports the notion that a high specific star formation rate can efficiently destroy or inhibit a dense molecular disk. A small subsample of higher redshift COSMOS galaxies display low internal reddening (E[B – V]), as well as a low incidence of dust lanes. These may be disks in which the growth of the dusty ISM disk lags behind that of the stellar disk. We note that at z = 0.8, the most massive galaxies display a lower dust lane fraction than lower mass galaxies. A small contribution of recent mergers or starbursts to this most massive population may be responsible. The fact that the fraction of galaxies with dust lanes in COSMOS is consistent with little or no evolution implies that models to explain the spectral energy distribution or the host galaxy dust extinction of supernovae based on local galaxies are still applicable to higher redshift spirals. It also suggests that dust lanes are long-lived phenomena or can be reformed over very short timescales.
[en] We report the discovery of 33 Lyman-break galaxy candidates at z ∼ 8 detected in Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) imaging as part of the Brightest of Reionizing Galaxies (BoRG) pure-parallel survey. The ongoing BoRG survey currently has the largest area (274 arcmin2) with Y 098 (or Y 105), J 125, and H 160 band coverage needed to search for z ∼ 8 galaxies, about three times the current CANDELS area, and slightly larger than what will be the final CANDELS wide component with Y 105 data (required to select z ∼ 8 sources). Our sample of 33 relatively bright Y 098-dropout galaxies have J 125-band magnitudes between 25.5 and 27.4 mag. This is the largest sample of bright (J 125 ∼< 27.4) z ∼ 8 galaxy candidates presented to date. Combining our data set with the Hubble Ultra-Deep Field data set, we constrain the rest-frame ultraviolet galaxy luminosity function at z ∼ 8 over the widest dynamic range currently available. The combined data sets are well fitted by a Schechter function, i.e., φ (L) = φ* (L/L*)α e-(L/L*), without evidence for an excess of sources at the bright end. At 68% confidence, for h = 0.7 we derive φ* = (4.3+3.5–2.1) × 10–4 Mpc–3, M * = –20.26+0.29–0.34, and a very steep faint-end slope α = –1.98+0.23–0.22. While the best-fit parameters still have a strong degeneracy, especially between φ* and M *, our improved coverage at the bright end has reduced the uncertainty of the faint-end power-law slope at z ∼ 8 compared to the best previous determination at ±0.4. With a future expansion of the BoRG survey, combined with planned ultradeep WFC3/IR observations, it will be possible to further reduce this uncertainty and clearly demonstrate the steepening of the faint-end slope compared to measurements at lower redshift, thereby confirming the key role played by small galaxies in the reionization of the universe.
[en] The remarkable Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data sets from the CANDELS, HUDF09, HUDF12, ERS, and BoRG/HIPPIES programs have allowed us to map the evolution of the rest-frame UV luminosity function (LF) from to . We develop new color criteria that more optimally utilize the full wavelength coverage from the optical, near-IR, and mid-IR observations over our search fields, while simultaneously minimizing the incompleteness and eliminating redshift gaps. We have identified 5859, 3001, 857, 481, 217, and 6 galaxy candidates at , , , , , and , respectively, from the ∼1000 arcmin2 area covered by these data sets. This sample of >10,000 galaxy candidates at is by far the largest assembled to date with HST. The selection of 4–8 candidates over the five CANDELS fields allows us to assess the cosmic variance; the largest variations are at . Our new LF determinations at and span a 6 mag baseline and reach to –16 AB mag. These determinations agree well with previous estimates, but the larger samples and volumes probed here result in a more reliable sampling of galaxies and allow us to reassess the form of the UV LFs. Our new LF results strengthen our earlier findings to significance for a steeper faint-end slope of the UV LF at , with α evolving from at to at (and at ), consistent with that expected from the evolution of the halo mass function. We find less evolution in the characteristic magnitude M* from to the observed evolution in the LF is now largely represented by changes in . No evidence for a non-Schechter-like form to the z ∼ 4–8 LFs is found. A simple conditional LF model based on halo growth and evolution in the M/L ratio of halos provides a good representation of the observed evolution.
[en] We present a tally of Milky Way late-type dwarf stars in 68 Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) pure-parallel fields (227 arcmin2) from the Brightest of Reionizing Galaxies survey for high-redshift galaxies. Using spectroscopically identified M-dwarfs in two public surveys, the Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey and the Early Release Science mosaics, we identify a morphological selection criterion using the half-light radius (r 50), a near-infrared J – H, G – J color region where M-dwarfs are found, and a V – J relation with M-dwarf subtype. We apply this morphological selection of stellar objects, color-color selection of M-dwarfs, and optical-near-infrared color subtyping to compile a catalog of 274 M-dwarfs belonging to the disk of the Milky Way with a limiting magnitude of m F125W < 24(AB). Based on the M-dwarf statistics, we conclude that (1) the previously identified north-south discrepancy in M-dwarf numbers persists in our sample; there are more M-dwarfs in the northern fields on average than in southern ones, (2) the Milky Way's single disk scale-height for M-dwarfs is 0.3-4 kpc, depending on subtype, (3) the scale-height depends on M-dwarf subtype with early types (M0-4) high scale-height (z 0 = 3-4 kpc) and later types M5 and above in the thin disk (z 0 = 0.3-0.5 kpc), (4) a second component is visible in the vertical distribution, with a different, much higher scale-height in the southern fields compared to the northern ones. We report the M-dwarf component of the Sagittarius stream in one of our fields with 11 confirmed M-dwarfs, seven of which are at the stream's distance. In addition to the M-dwarf catalog, we report the discovery of 1 T-dwarfs and 30 L-dwarfs from their near-infrared colors. The dwarf scale-height and the relative low incidence in our fields of L- and T-dwarfs in these fields makes it unlikely that these stars will be interlopers in great numbers in color-selected samples of high-redshift galaxies. The relative ubiquity of M-dwarfs however will make them ideal tracers of Galactic halo substructure with EUCLID and reference stars for James Webb Space Telescope observations.