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[en] Structural transformations in elementary metals under high pressures are considered using the Landau theory of phase transitions, in which the finite strain tensor components play the role of the order parameter. As an example, the phase transition in vanadium observed at a pressure of 69 GPa is analyzed. It is shown that it is a first-order elastic phase transition, which is close to a second-order transition.
[en] The structure and properties of quasicrystals are discussed. The short-and long-range atomic orders and the effect of these factors on the physical characteristics are considered. It is noted that investigations of the physical properties of quasicrystals at temperatures above room temperature should be performed. Promising applications are briefly outlined
[en] The elastic phase transitions of cubic metals at high pressures are investigated within the framework of Landau theory. It is shown that at pressures comparable with the magnitude of the bulk modulus the phase transition is connected with the loss of stability relative to uniform deformation of the crystalline lattice. Discontinuity of the order parameter at the transition point and its equilibrium value are expressed through the second- to fourth-order elastic constants. The second-,third- and fourth-order elastic constants and phonon dispersion curves of vanadium under hydrostatic pressure are obtained by first-principles calculations. Structural transformation in vanadium under pressure is studied using the obtained results. It is shown that the experimentally observed at P ≈ 69 GPa phase transition in vanadium is the first-order phase transition close to a second-order phase transition. (paper)