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[en] Highlights: • Reaction mechanism of thermal decomposition of military explosives is investigated. • Mathematical modeling of thermal decomposition are executed. • Commercial scale reactor is employed for demilitarization of waste explosives. • Dynamic response of thermal decomposition is examined in a reactor. - Abstract: Demilitarization of waste explosives on a commercial scale has become an important issue in many countries, and this has created a need for research in this area. TNT, RDX and Composition B have been used as military explosives, and they are very sensitive to thermal shock. For the safe waste treatment of these high-energy and highly sensitive explosives, the most plausible candidate suggested has been thermal decomposition in a rotary kiln. This research examines the safe treatment of waste TNT, RDX and Composition B in a rotary kiln type incinerator with regard to suitable operating conditions. Thermal decomposition in this study includes melting, 3 condensed phase reactions in the liquid phase and 263 gas phase reactions. Rigorous mathematical modeling and dynamic simulation for thermal decomposition were carried out for analysis of dynamic behavior in the reactor. The results showed time transient changes of the temperature, components and mass of the explosives and comparisons were made for the 3 explosives. It was concluded that waste explosives subject to heat supplied by hot air at 523.15 K were incinerated safely without any thermal detonation.
[en] Orientation changes in sol-gel derived (40%)Pb(Sc1/2Nb1/2)O3-(60%)PbTiO3 (PSNT(40/60)) thin films on two different kinds of Pt bottom electrodes were investigated. PSNT thin films grown on the Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Si substrate with a high degree of (111) Pt preferred orientation showed predominant (100) orientation while the others on the Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrate with a lesser degree of (111) preferred orientation had random orientation. The effects of these two different substrates were show through the crystallographic orientation of the films in correlation with the microstructure and orientation Pt-bottom-electrode