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[en] On the basis of data obtained from China Earthquake Administration and China National Statistics Bureau, this paper focuses on the earthquake disaster loss characteristics in 31 provinces or municipalities of China from 1993 to 2016. The trends of direct economic losses, casualties and affected population are also analyzed by constructing two relative earthquake loss indexes (losses/GDP and losses/E) and employing gray correlation theory. Results show that during the 24 years, without taking Wenchuan Ms8.0 earthquake into account, the direct economic losses exhibit a significant increasing trend while losses/GDP also increases but is not significant. Meanwhile, the injuries and affected population both witness a decline trend but the fatalities show the opposite. According to the correlational degree of each year, 8 years (1995, 1996, 1998, 2003, 2008, 2010, 2013 and 2014) suffered losses of equal or above moderate grade. Regionally, the western China suffered the most accumulative direct economic losses and losses/GDP. However, the ranking results of losses/E demonstrate that the central China is the most vulnerable when confronting with the same earthquake. Specifically, Sichuan and Yunnan suffered losses of extra-large grade, Qinghai of large grade and Tibet, Xinjiang and Guangdong of moderate grade. These discoveries are helpful for earthquake mitigation and preparedness as well as earthquake loss evaluation in China.
[en] A series of carbon nanotube (CNTs)-supported copper-cobalt catalysts were prepared and investigated in a slurry reactor for their ability to selectively convert syngas into higher carbon number alcohols. The 7.5Cu7.5Co/CNTs catalyst achieved superior selectivity towards the formation of ethanol (30.1%) and C2+ alcohols (57.7%), while the 10Co5Cu/CNTs catalyst exhibited the largest alcohol space-time yield (372.9 mg gcat-1 h-1). However, the pure Cu (15Cu/CNTs) catalyst displayed negligible activity. Cobalt reduction was enhanced in the presence of copper. In addition to the Cu0-Co0 center, Co0 -Co2+ also presented dual active sites for higher alcohols synthesis, the Co2+ site could terminate carbon chain growth to produce alcohols. The ratio of Cu/Co considerably influences the metal particle properties-synergistically effecting the active species. (author)