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[en] Quantum entanglement provides a contemporary secure channel for information communication, and the entanglement swapping builds newly entanglement on the previous isolate particles without direct interaction. In the paper, a novel-layered quantum communication path protocol cross multiple participants based on entanglement swapping is proposed, in which the communication path from sender to receiver across multiple intermediate nodes is constructed, and the constructed quantum channel is served for the information exchange. The present protocol can transmit message from sender to receiver via entanglement swapping. The presented protocol is useful for long-distance quantum information communication, significant to quantum network design and plan.
[en] Magnetic polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) based on chitosan and sodium ligninsulfonate as the support to stabilize Fe/Pd bimetallic particles (mPEC-Fe/Pd) were synthesized for the degradation and decolorization of organic pollutants in aqueous solution. The morphologies and structures of the as-obtained composites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Various factors potentially influencing the decolorization performance of methyl blue (MB) and malachite green (MG) from aqueous solution (i.e., mPEC-Fe/Pd dosage, solution pH, initial dye concentration and reaction temperature) were investigated. mPEC-Fe/Pd exhibited higher catalytic activity towards the removal of MB and MG, which involved both adsorption of dye molecules on mPEC surface and reduction reaction by Fe/Pd particles. Nearly 99% and 91% of MB and MG were removed at initial dye concentration of 100 mg l−1 with 1.0 g l−1 of mPEC-Fe/Pd, respectively. The decolorization efficiency of MB and MG increased with the increase of solution pH and mPEC-Fe/Pd dosage but decreased with the increase of initial dye concentrations. mPEC-Fe/Pd could be recycled effectively, and the removal percentage of MB reached as high as 83.5% even at the eighth reuse. Furthermore, the catalytic performances were further investigated to remove other organic pollutants, in which 92.4% of oxytetracycline, 85.1% of Tetrabromobisphenol A, and 34.7% of norfloxacin were removed at 50 mg l−1 of aqueous solution using 1.0 g l−1 of mPEC-Fe/Pd. Due to high removal efficiency, rapid reaction rate, easy separation and good reusability, mPEC-Fe/Pd had the potential to become an environmental remediation material for the treatment of wastewater containing organic compounds. (paper)