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[en] Energy conversion technologies, especially for power generation and refrigeration technologies driven by the low temperature heat, are gathering the momentum recently. This paper presents a novel resorption system for electricity and refrigeration cogeneraion. Compared with adsorption refrigeration system, resorption refrigeration is characterized as safety and simple structure since there is no ammonia liquid in the system. The cogeneration system is mainly composed of three HTS (high temperature salt) unit beds; three LTS (low temperature salts) unit beds, one expander, three ammonia valves, two oil valves, four water valves and connection pipes. Chemical working pair of MnCl_2–CaCl_2–NH_3 is selected. Since scroll expander is suitable for small type power generation system, it is chosen for expansion process. 4.8 kg MnCl_2 and 3.9 kg CaCl_2 impregnated in expanded natural graphite treated with sulfuric acid (ENG-TSA) are filled in the cogeneration system. Experimental results show that maximum cooling power 2.98 kW is able to be obtained while maximum shaft power is about 253 W with 82.3 W average value. The cogeneration system can be utilized for the heat source temperature lower than 170 °C. Total energy efficiency increases from 0.293 to 0.417 then decreases to 0.407 while exergy efficiency increases from 0.12 to 0.16. - Highlights: • A resorption system for power and refrigeration cogeneration is established and investigated. • ENG-TSA as the additive improves the heat and mass performance of composite adsorbent. • The highest shaft power and refrigeration power are 253 W and 2.98 kW, respectively. • Total energy efficiency of the system increases from 0.293 to 0.417 then decreases to 0.407.
[en] Highlights: • A novel resorption thermal energy storage system is established. • Working pair of MnCl_2−CaCl_2−NH_3 is chosen for heat and refrigeration cogeneration. • The largest energy storage density reaches 1706 kJ/kg. • The maximum average cooling power is 1.07 kW during discharging phase. • The largest energy and exergy efficiency are 0.87 and 0.35 respectively. - Abstract: Sorption thermal energy storage (STES) is perceived as one prospective way of thermal energy storage (TES) owing to the advantages of high energy density, negligible heat loss, flexible working modes and long-term storage capability. Based on STES, this paper exhibits an innovative resorption thermal energy storage (RTES) system, and the experimental prototype is established for heat and refrigeration cogeneration. Working pair of MnCl_2−CaCl_2−NH_3 is chosen, 4.8 kg MnCl_2 and 3.9 kg CaCl_2 impregnated in expanded natural graphite treated with sulfuric acid are filled in two sorption beds respectively. Experimental results indicate that the largest energy storage density reaches 1706 kJ/kg when charging and discharging temperature are 160 °C and 30 °C, respectively. The maximum average cooling power achieves 1.07 kW during discharging phase and corresponding SCP is 27.33 W/kg within the overall cycle period. When charging temperature increases from 135 °C to 160 °C, the energy efficiency of the resorption system for heat and refrigeration cogeneration augments steadily from 0.72 to 0.87 while the exergy efficiency rises slowly from 0.29 to 0.35.
[en] Graphical abstract: Solid–gas thermochemical multilevel sorption thermal battery for cascaded thermal energy storage. - Highlights: • A novel solid–gas thermochemical multilevel sorption thermal battery for energy storage. • Cascaded solar heat storage using thermochemical multilevel sorption thermal battery. • Performance of the thermochemical multilevel sorption thermal battery is analyzed. • The proposed method has high energy density and broad working temperature range. • Energy density of the proposed method is sensitive to chemical global conversion. - Abstract: An innovative solid–gas thermochemical multilevel sorption thermal battery is developed for cascaded solar thermal energy storage to enhance the versatility and working reliability of solar heat storage system by widening the working temperature range. Solar thermal energy can be stored in the form of bond energy of sorption potential at different cascaded temperatures resulting from solid–gas thermochemical multilevel sorption processes. The operating principle and working performance of the thermochemical multilevel sorption thermal battery for energy storage is described and analyzed. Thermodynamic analysis showed that the proposed thermochemical multilevel sorption thermal battery has the potential capacity for meeting the challenge of solar heat storage during the random variation of low and high solar insolation with time by using cascaded thermal energy storage technology. An energy density higher than 1200 kJ/kg of reactant can be attained from the advanced energy storage system. The promising method can enhance the versatility and working reliability of solar heat storage due to its distinct advantages of high energy density and a wide range of solar collection temperature when compared with conventional heat storage methods. It has potential applications for energy management of renewable energy utilization and waste heat recovery in large-scale industrial processes.
[en] Highlights: • Resorption cycle is proposed for the air conditioners (ACs) of electric vehicles (EVs). • Intermittent working modes of the cycle won’t consume the electricity of on-board batteries. • Resorption working pair of CaCl2-NH4Cl-NH3 has reasonable energy density and high COP. • Energy consumption of resorption AC is reasonable if compared with conventional AC of EVs. - Abstract: Conventional compression type air conditioners (ACs) consume a large part of the electricity of batteries on-board of electric vehicles, and that will make the cruising mileage shorter. Sorption and resorption cycles, which are intermittent, may solve this question by the energy storage phases. Both sorption and resorption cycles are analyzed and compared, and both of them have simpler structure if compared with conventional AC for that only two heat exchangers are required. The equilibrium performance analysis shows that resorption working pairs has higher energy density and coefficient of performance (COP) than that of sorption working pairs when the high temperature salt of resorption cycle is same with the halide of sorption cycle. The experimental Clapeyron curves are studied, and CaCl2-NH4Cl-NH3 has best performance. Compared with MnCl2-CaCl2-NH3 and MnCl2-NH4Cl-NH3, the energy density and COP of CaCl2-NH4Cl-NH3 improves by 160% and 35% at least, respectively. The performance of CaCl2-NH4Cl-NH3 is also compared with that of CaCl2-NH3. They have similar smallest energy density, and CaCl2-NH4Cl-NH3 has higher COP if consider the working conditions in the whole year. The energy required for the electric car with a resorption AC is 0.23–0.265 kWh/km, which is acceptable if compared with the results of conventional AC.
[en] A constant temperature and humidity air-conditioning system driven by ground source heat pumps was designed and constructed in an archives building in Shanghai, China. The system consists of two water-to-water heat pumps and 280 boreholes with 80 m in depth. In order to keep the temperature and humidity constant, the operation mode that one heat pump ran in heating mode and the other one ran in cooling mode was deployed. According to the experimental results under typical winter weather condition of Shanghai, the average COP of the heat pump in heating mode was 5.2. The average temperature and relative humidity of the archives house were 22.8 deg. C and 52.5%, respectively. It was found that the operation mode we deployed could reduce the heat absorbed from the soil by 20%. Theoretical analysis showed that it was helpful for the earth energy conservation with one heat pump operated in cooling mode in winter. It was also shown that the decrease range of temperature of the soil in the middle of two boreholes would reduce with the increase of the distance between two boreholes. The distance between two boreholes is suggested to be 4-5 m in Shanghai.
[en] Based upon the fast development of energy efficiency, energy safety and use of renewable and sustainable energy, various energy systems related to residential refrigeration, power generation and storage have been developing. Some of them are in large scale application, while others are still under development. Current status of residential refrigeration, power generation and energy storage technologies have been briefly summarized in this paper. Also, future residential refrigeration, power generation and energy storage technologies are highlighted, and some roadmaps are discussed. -- Highlights: ▸ Current status and future development of residential refrigeration have been briefly summarized and discussed. ▸ Current status and future development of power generation have been briefly summarized and discussed. ▸ Current status and future development of energy storage have been briefly summarized and discussed
[en] Adsorption refrigeration and heat pump systems have been considered as important means for the efficient use of low-grade thermal energy of 60-150 oC. Sorption systems are merely thermodynamic systems based on heat exchangers, and therefore a good design to optimize heat and mass transfer with reaction or sorption processes is very important, for which the notable technique is the use of expanded graphite to improve both heat and mass transfer in the chemisorption beds. Studies have also shown the need to enhance the heat transfer in adsorption bed by matching with the efficient heat transfer of thermal fluids. Heat pipes and good thermal loop design coupled with adsorption beds could yield higher thermal performance of a sorption system. A novel design with passive evaporation, known as rising film evaporation coupled with a gravity heat pipe was introduced for high cooling output. It has also been shown that the performance of traditional heat and mass recovery in the sorption systems is limited, and novel arrangement of thermal fluid and refrigerant may improve the performance of sorption systems. Based upon the above researches, various sorption systems have been developed, and high performances have been reached. -- Highlights: →Heat transfer design in adsorption refrigeration systems is researched. →Solidified adsorbent is an effective way to improve the heat transfer. →Heat pipe and rising film evaporation could generate high cooling output. →With efficient design two adsorption systems are developed. →Double way and double effect cycle is introduced.
[en] A novel rotary desiccant cooling cycle is proposed and studied using thermodynamic analysis method. The proposed cycle integrates the technologies of isothermal dehumidification and regenerative evaporative cooling, which are beneficial for irreversibility reduction. Thermodynamic investigation on the basic rotary desiccant cooling cycle shows that the exergy efficiency of the basic cycle is only 8.6%. The processes of desiccant dehumidification and evaporative cooling, which are essentially the basis for rotary desiccant cooling, affect the exergy performance of the cycle greatly and account for about one third of the total exergy destruction. The proposed cycle has potential to improve rotary desiccant cooling technology. It is advantageous in terms of both heat source utilization rate and space cooling capacity. The exergy efficiency of the new cycle is enhanced significantly to 29.1%, which is about three times that of the ventilation cycle, and 60% higher than that of the two-stage rotary desiccant cooling cycle. Furthermore, the regeneration temperature is reduced from 80 °C to about 60 °C. The corresponding specific exergy of the supply air is increased by nearly 30% when compared with the conventional cycles. -- Highlights: ► A novel rotary desiccant cooling cycle is developed using thermodynamic analysis method. ► Isothermal dehumidification and regenerative evaporative cooling have been integrated. ► The cycle is advantageous in terms of both heat source utilization rate and space cooling capacity. ► Cascaded energy utilization is beneficial for cycle performance improvement. ► Upper limits, which will be helpful to practical design and optimization, are obtained.
[en] A novel constant volume test unit was built to study the adsorption performance of a new type composite adsorbent. This test unit can measure the adsorption isosteres of the working pairs. The adsorption isosteres are the curves of the adsorption pressure variation with the adsorption temperatures at constant adsorption quantities. Compared to the former test results of isothermals and isobars, the isosteres are better for the calculation of the adsorption heat, desorption heat and the selection the adsorption working pairs. Three experimental results were obtained: the first result was that the expanded graphite powders were superior to the expandable graphite powders to facilitate the transportation of working fluid in the composite adsorbent. The second one was that the composite adsorbent treated by solution is more homogeneous than the simple mixed composite adsorbent and the treated composite adsorbent has a better mass transfer performance. The last one was that the adsorption isosteres was the same one not only in the heating process but also in the cooling process and this performance was not relevant to the homogeneity of the composite adsorbent
[en] An innovative multifunction heat pipe type sorption refrigeration system is designed, in which a two-stage sorption thermodynamic cycle based on two heat recovery processes was employed to reduce the driving heat source temperature, and the composite sorbent of CaCl2 and activated carbon was used to improve the mass and heat transfer performances. For this test unit, the heating, cooling and heat recovery processes between two reactive beds are performed by multifunction heat pipes. The aim of this paper is to investigate the cycled characteristics of two-stage sorption refrigeration system with heat recovery processes. The two sub-cycles of a two-stage cycle have different sorption platforms though the adsorption and desorption temperatures are equivalent. The experimental results showed that the pressure evolutions of two beds are nearly equivalent during the first stage, and desorption pressure during the second stage is large higher than that in the first stage while the desorption temperatures are same during the two operation stages. In comparison with conventional two-stage cycle, the two-stage cycle with heat recovery processes can reduce the heating load for desorber and cooling load for adsorber, the coefficient of performance (COP) has been improved more than 23% when both cycles have the same regeneration temperature of 103 deg. C and the cooling water temperature of 30 deg. C. The advanced two-stage cycle provides an effective method for application of sorption refrigeration technology under the condition of low-grade temperature heat source or utilization of renewable energy