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[en] In radiation therapy, a complete study of patients on the indication of radiotherapy, delicate consideration during the radiotherapy, adequate after-care, the follow-up study and reconsideration are necessary. The radiotherapy patients are quite different in treatment and care. It takes, time to evaluate. Sometimes the misjudgement of patients last several years. However, the great endurance and efforts are vital necessity for the radiotherapy evaluation and improvement of radiotherapy techniques. At the Radiological Research Institute, all the radiotherapy patients from November 23, 1963 to December 31, 1968 were observed, and among them, those who survived three years after radiotherapy were analyzed in order to report the difficulty in follow-up study and to help formulate a better method of radiotherapy. All the follow-up study was done by questionnaire form. We have sent 8,470 letters, and received 2,084 Positive answers (24.6%) and the returned and no-reply were 6,386 (75.4%). As a sample case, 121 patients, who reside in Chongro-ku Seoul, were selected for home-visiting by our staffs. 67 patients (48.6%) could be located easily where as 71 patients (51.4%) could not be located. The results of follow-up correspondences were analyzed and categorized by the international classification of disease. Three-years survivors and the surviving rate are listed
[en] The measurement of disappearance rates of colloidal 198Au from blood flow in an excellent index of hepatic blood flow and of extraction efficiency of Kupffer cells. This, therefore, can be used as an ancillary examination of liver function especially in the patients with altered hemodynamics of the liver and portal system as in liver cirrhosis. The examination is very simple and can be performed without preparation of patients on an ambulatory basis. Normal values of disappearance rates were set by a control study of 172 normal subjects. Validity and reproducibility of the measurements were assessed. Increment in the amount of colloidal 198Au to be injected as made necessary by natural decay did not seem to affect the determinations of disappearance rates. The disappearance rate were found to be significantly delayed in the patients with liver cirrhosis.
[en] The effects of X-ray irradiation and the thyroid gland on the erythropoietic system were studied in the white male rabbits. The total body irradiation was done in doses of 250r and 500r to each of 5 rabbits for 10 days. The factors were 220 KV, 10 mA, FLI/4 Cu+1 mmAl (HVL:2.0 mmCu) 50 cm F.S.D. The thyroid dysfunction was experimentally induced by giving 2 mg of thyroid tablets per kg body weight for 15 days in 5 rabbits for hyperthyroidism and by giving 1.5 mC of 131I per kg body weight in another 5 rabbits for hypothyroidism. Fourteen healthy rabbits were used as control. The hematologic changes and ferrokinetic data obtained from 59Fe and apparent half survival of the red blood cells obtained from 51Cr were compared. Following were the results: A. X-ray irradiated group; 1) There were no significant changes in hematologic findings except for leucopenia. A slight decrease of red blood cells was observed in 500r irradiated animals. 2) The decrease in the iron turnover rates of the plasma and red blood cells as well as in the red cell renewal rate were found in both groups. A significant decrease of the red cell iron utilization rate was observed in the 500r irradiated animals. 3) The apparent half survival times of the red blood cells were slightly, in the 250r (12.1±0.80 days), and markedly shortened in the 500r irradiated animals (9.8±1.38 days), the normal being 14.0±1.6 days. 4) It appears, therefore, that the anemia caused by X-ray irradiation is due to the inhibition of hemopoietic function and the excess destruction of the red blood cells. B. 1) The slight increase of the red blood cell count and circulating blood volume with the normal serum iron level were observed in the hyperthyoid group, while the decrease of the red and white blood cell counts, hemoglobin and hematocrit values with a marked decrease of the serum iron level in the hypothyroid group. 2) A marked decrease of the plasma iron disappearance rate with increase of plasma iron turnover, red cell iron utilization and red cell iron turnover were observed in the hyperthyroid group, while the marked delay and decrease in the hypothyroid group. 3) The apparent half survival times of the red blood cells were almost the same with the control in the hyperthyroid group, (14.0±1.58 days) while a marked shortening in the hypothyroid group (10.6±0.30 days). 4) It was reconfirmed that the thyroid hormones bear a close relationship with the erythropoietic system, namely, the latter is stimulated by the former. The lack of the thyroid hormones thus induces the bone marrow depression leading to anemia the major cause of which, therefore, is not hemolysis.
[en] In view of its prevalence in the Far East area, a more detailed knowledge on the hookworm infection is one of the very important medical problem. The present study was aimed to determine the infectivity of the artificially hatched ancylosotma duodenale larvae in man after its oral administration, evaluate the clinical symptomatology of such infection, determine the date of first appearance of ova in the stool, calculate the blood loss per worm per day, assess the relation-ships between the ova count, infectivity (worm load), blood loss and severity of anemia. An erythrokinetic study was also done to analyse the characteristics of hookworm anemia by means of 59Fe and 51Cr.
[en] In 1969 this laboratory had prepared 131 mc. of radiopharmaceuticals in total (Hippuran and other four kinds) and distributed to the major medical establishment. The quality and stability of these products were reviewed by means of radio paper partition chromatography and thin layer chromatography and results were compared to those of foreign products. Generally, the quality and stability of the product of this laboratory were better than those of the foreign product, even though the properties of the radiopharmaceutical were varied by the procedure of the preparation adopted. Various precautions for handling radiopharmaceuticals for clinical use were also described with a view of quality control and stability test there of.
[en] In an endeavor to help understand some typical scan findings and portal hemodynamics in liver cirrhosis, several commonly occurring scan changes and esophageal varices as demonstrated by esophagram were correlated one another from quantitative and qualitative stand points. Clinical materials consisted of 34 patients with proven diagnosis of liver cirrhosis and esophageal varices. Liver scan was performed with colloidal 198-Au and the changes in the size and internal architecture of the Liver, splenic uptake and splenomegaly were graded and scored by repeated double-blind readings. The variceal changes on esophagrams were also graded according to the classification of Shanks and Kerley following modification. Of 34 patients, 91% showed definite reducing in liver volume(shrinkage) constituting the most frequent scan change. The splenic uptake and splenomegaly were noted in 73.5 and 79.4%, respectively. The present study revealed no positive correlation between the graded scan findings including shrinkage of the liver, splenic uptake or splenomegaly and severity of variceal changes of the esophagus. Exceptionally, however, apparently paradoxical correlation was noted between the severity of mottling and varices. Thus, in the majority(73.5%) of patients mottling were either absent or mild. This interesting observation is in favor of the view held by Christie et al. who consider the mottlings to be not faithful expression of actual scarring of the cirrhosis liver. This also would indicate that variceal changes are to be the results of intrahepatic arteriovenous shunting of blood with hypervolemic load to the portal system rather than simple hypertension secondary to fibrosis and shrinkage.
[en] This book gives descriptions of machine design including flat belt, like transmission by belting, v-belt drive, structure and kinds rope gearing, chain drive, screw, bolt, nut key, like saddle key, flat key, cone key, and feather key cotter, pin, reverted joint, welding joint, friction gearing like variable speed drive, basic theory of electric machine such as magnitude of tooth and back lash, structure and explanations of helical gear, bevel gear and skew gear and screw gear.
[en] Anemia is a usual finding in advanced malignant diseases. Various mechanisms were reported as to be involved in the development of anemia of this kind, and they may differ in individual cases. Tumor anemias may be due, for instance, to chronic blood loss, shortened life span of the red blood cells or a decreased hemopoiesis in the bone marrow. The serum iron and copper levels, total iron binding capacity, apparent half survival of 51Cr-labelled red blood cells were measurement with the ferrokinetic studies using 59Fe in 64 patients with various malignant tumors. Following were the results: 1) The serum iron levels were decreased in all cases. There existed no correlation between the serum iron levels and the severity of the diseases. 2) The serum copper levels were increased, particularly in lung cancer, rectal cancer, hepatoma and various sarcomas. There was also no correlation between the serum copper levels and the severity of the diseases. 3) The serum iron levels appeared to be inversely proportional to the serum copper levels. 4) The total iron binding capacities were within normal limits in all cases. There were also no correlations between the total iron binding capacities, serum iron levels and the severity of the diseases. 5) The patients could be classified according the ferrokinetic patterns, namely, that of iron deficiency anemia in 10 cases, that of refractory anemia in 6 cases, normal in 1 case and that of atypical abnormal in 9 cases. 6) Apparent half survival time of 51Cr-labelled red blood cells were definitely shortened in half of the cases.
[en] Ferrokinetics by Pollycove's method on 2 cases of Chronic myelogenous leukemia were presented in order to study the erythropoietic function and pathogenesis of anemia. The results are as follows. (1) The daily hemoglobin syntheses were slightly elevated. Both the mean effective hemoglobinization time and mean erythron life span were shortened. The maximum net RBC incorporations of 59Fe were decreased. The in vivo surface measurements of radioactivity over liver, spleen, and sacral bone marrow revealed findings consistant with hemolysis and extramedullary hematopoiesis. (2) Based upon those findings it is assumed that anemia in chronic myelogenous leukemia may result from hemolysis and inadequate compensation to the developing anemia.
[en] To clarify the hematologic effects of the radioiodine (131I) in therapeutic doses (510 mCi) on the various thyroid patients, authors studied the peripheral blood pictures of 396 goitrous patients before and after radioiodine (131I) administrations in the Isotope Clinic of Seoul National University Hospital. Among these 396 cases of goiters, we gave 5 to 10 mCi of radioiodine (131I) with single or fractionated administrations. The blood pictures of non-treated thyroid patients were compared with that of normal Korean values to clarify any difference between normal and goiter. The blood pictures of hyperthyroid patients treated with 131I therapy were compared with the blood pictures of non-treated thyroid patients. The results were as following: 1) The incidence according to type: Toxic diffuse goiter: 35.4%. Nontoxic nodular goiter: 29.7%. Euthyroid: 13.8%. Nontoxic diffuse goiter: 12.6%. Hypothyroidism: 4.3%. Thyroiditis (s subacute form): 1.8%. Toxic nodular goiter: 1.4%. Malignancy: 1.0%. 2) Age incidence: The range of distribution was 11 to 71 years. The peak incidence was found in the 4th decade of life. 80.6-82.6% of those 396 cases were found among the 3rd, 4th and the 5th decades of life. 3) Sex incidence: Sex ratio of male:female was 1 : 7.8. 4) The most outstanding findings in peripheral blood before treatment were decreased erythrocyte count and hemoglobin value in all types of thyroid diseases, especially in the cases of hypothyroidism and thyroiditis. Hook worm-infested patients showed no significant difference in erythrocytes and hemoglobin values from those of other hook worm free patients. 5) Total leukocytes count was within normal range. Differential count of W.B.C. showed increased percentile of lymphocyte in diffuse toxic goiter and thyroiditis. 6) 39 cases of diffuse goiter treated with 131I toxic showed amelioration in the anemia and restoration to normal range of lymphocyte count in association with increased percentile of neutrophiles 3 months after administration, except a case of toxic nodular goiter. One can observe anemia in slight degree, and increased lymphocytes count in hypothyroidism. Therapeutic dose of radioiodine (131I) dose not result any residual effect on the hematopoietic function. Radioiodine (131I) therapy resulted in improvement of thyroid function in association of amelioration of previous abnormal blood pictures. 7) Authors did not observe any myxedema resulted from radioiodine therapy during the 3 months period in this study.