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[en] In response to the 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster in Japan, France ordered stress tests of its nuclear plants while Germany announced its nuclear exit by 2022. Given that both countries benefitted from nuclear energy with a relatively low risk of a disaster, this divergence is puzzling. Yet France and Germany’s reactions were not ad hoc reactions; they were shaped by their post-war experiences and previous anti-nuclear mobilizations. Fukushima merely offered a political opportunity for the effective vocalization of antinuclear dissent, and ultimately the permeability of governing institutions determined each country’s response. In order to explore this argument, this paper will examine the issue's coverage predominately within one French newspaper, Le Monde, and one German newspaper, Suddeutsche Zeitung, from 11 March to 18 June 2011 to gain insight of contemporary political opportunities and elite consensus as well as how meaning was being constructed and consumed by the public on this issue. (author)
[en] This study addresses attitudes toward nuclear power in an international comparative setting for two distinct scenarios: In a period without an issue-related exogenous shock and in the wake of nuclear accidents. As it cannot be taken for granted that citizens attach increased importance to issues of energy policy, the theoretical discussion deals with various implications of relative issue saliences with a focus on varying politicization levels. The empirical analyses for periods without external events reveals profound context-specific patterns when it comes to the association between predispositions and the evaluation of nuclear power. Theoretical mechanisms that are often generally assumed in the literature are mainly found in economically advanced countries. Moreover, using the Fukushima accident as an example for a scenario with an exogenous shock, the analysis highlights that attitudinal and behavioral reactions have to be conceived of as a complex interaction of elite cues, individual predispositions and long-term dynamics in issue salience. Based on three case studies, the investigation suggests that an increase in issue salience is only present in the immediate aftermath of the Fukushima disaster, if at all. As context-specific politicization is relevant for a wide array of political issues - especially for less important topics - the study provides substantial and methodological implications beyond just the scope of the nuclear power issue.
[en] Today, electricity is very important in our life for our activities, lighting, factories, air conditioning, irrigation, refrigerators, etc. utility will be subjected to a lot of problems. So, electric utilities search for a method to provide customers with the electric energy demand with a reasonable level of reliability and economically as possible. Demand-side management is an important consideration for electric power utilities, in order to control using of electric power. Demand-Side Management (DSM) programs consist of the planning, implementing and monitoring the activities of electric utilities which are designed to encourage consumers to modify their level and pattern of electricity usage. The goal of this thesis is to determine the impact of DSM on the power system load curve and on the power system reliability. Different DSM programs will be applied on the power system load curve of IEEE Reliability Test System (IEEE-RTS). Valley Filling method, Energy Conservation method, Peak Clipping method, Load Shifting method and Load Building method will be used to evaluate their effect on the hourly load curve. Different DSM will be applied on the Egyptian will be used to evaluate their affection the hourly load curve. Different DSM program will be applied on the Egyptian electricity power system to determine the effect of DSM programs (only four methods) on maximum annual day load profile and determine the effect of DSM on the total system cost and planning reserve margin.In this study, MESSAGE program will be used to calculate total system cost of the Egyptian electric power system which consists of 89 generation stations. The total system cost (fixed, variable and investment cost) will be calculated for the Base Case, then DSM programs will be applied (Energy Conservation, Valley Filling, Peak Clipping, Load Shifting and) on the Egyptian electric power system in each year for all cases. Also planning reserve margin will be calculated in each year for the base case and with DSM programs. Planning reserve margin will be calculated as a percentage of the total installed capacity. Average annual reserve margin will be calculated for each case of the plan. Also, average growth rate of peak load will be calculated for each case of the plan. Total capacity added in each year will be calculated for Base Case and four DSM programs of the Plan
[en] The liberalisation of electricity markets and the increase of renewable energy generation actually causes dramatic changes for the whole European power industry. The transmission system operators in particular have to meet the challenge to ensure a stable and reliable system operation in the future. Significant changes in power generation will require a substantial extension to current inadequate original transmission grids to handle increased wide area power flows. This is the only way to avoid overloading the grid and to reduce the herefrom resulting limitations for the Pan-European cross-border trade of electricity. This work describes in detail the development of a Pan-European integrated grid and an electricity market simulation tool. For this purpose an overview about the today's structure of the European electricity industry is given initially. Afterwards the configuration of the transmission grid, the used equipment and different methods for the load flow and short circuit calculation are explained. Furthermore models for the calculation of local loads and the power plant dispatch are presented in the following chapters. Following on from this a detailed model of the European electricity industry is developed and the main functions are described by means of some exemplary simulations. The simulation tool developed in this work enables the user to calculate realistic power plant schedules and the consequent resulting physical effects on the European transmission grid. It combines a time series based simulation of the electricity market with a detailed model of the transmission grid. The highly detailing of the model offers the feasibility to execute a complete AC load flow calculation using the Newton Raphson algorithm.Therefore it is possible to identify the active as well as the reactive power flows in the grid. The results of the power flow calculation are the basis for further investigations (e. g. the short circuit calculation) and to decide on reasonable grid extension tasks. An essential part of the simulation of the electricity market is also the consideration of the international electricity trade. This leads to a very complex optimisation problem, which is solved by an evolutionary strategy in this work. Because the whole model is based on publicly available data, it is a platform for the continuing scientific research at the University of Hanover, in which new aspects, which are not part of this work (e. g. stability analysis or the dynamic behaviour of the grid), will be investigated.
[en] In recent times, environmental, energy and climate policies have gained tremendously in importance. Not least, this is due to the latest research findings related to climate change and the resulting growing environmental awareness among people. However, policy approaches to combat environmental pollution and climate change differ both in their intention and in their economic impacts. For instance, command-and-control instruments such as performance or technology standards have different implications than market-based mechanisms such as permit trading of greenhouse gas emissions. Furthermore, sectoral and regional characteristics play an important role when implementing and assessing policy measures. This applies both to the attainability of the targets and to the available instruments. The present doctoral thesis addresses this point and analyzes in several essays different policy instruments and their economic effects from global, regional and sectoral perspectives. In this respect, it deals with various, often very heterogeneous question: How are specific policy types implemented in different countries? What is the CO2 abatement potential in specific regions and sectors? What policy measures can be plausibly used to exploit this potential? How can technological developments and technology-directed policy interventions contribute to improve energy efficiency? Does the promotion of certain energy sources necessarily create positive production and employment effects? To answer these and further questions, different economic methods are applied that accommodate the particular problem, where special emphasis is put on computable general equilibrium modeling. The aim of this work is to contribute to the academic and political debate on measures to combat environmental and climate problems.
[en] This report presents a comparative study of long-term energy demand and potential greenhouse gas emissions projections from energy demand and supply sectors in Bangladesh covering the period 2000 to 2020. The study was conducted employing the IAEA's tool ENPEP- BALANCE model. This study presents a reliable energy system plan with minimal carbon emission for the country. Primary energy demands distributed by energy carriers and electricity demand have been projected based on macro-economic growth scenarios constructed for national energy policy of 1996. The conservation of indigenous energy resources was emphasized to build a long-term secured energy supply system. The potential energy supply options including nuclear energy and prospective greenhouse gas mitigation options were analyzed
[en] This thesis is dedicated to the evaluation of environmental policies in the context of climate change. Its objectives are twofold. Its first part is devoted to the development of potent instruments for quantitative impact analysis of environmental policy. In this context, the main contributions include the development of a new computable general equilibrium (CGE) model which makes use of the new comprehensive and coherent World Input-Output Dataset (WIOD) and which features a detailed representation of bilateral and bisectoral trade flows. Moreover it features an investigation of input substitutability to provide modellers with adequate estimates for key elasticities as well as a discussion and amelioration of the standard base year calibration procedure of most CGE models. Building on these tools, the second part applies the improved modelling framework and studies the economic implications of environmental policy. This includes an analysis of so called rebound effects, which are triggered by energy efficiency improvements and reduce their net benefit, an investigation of how firms restructure their production processes in the presence of carbon pricing mechanisms, and an analysis of a regional maritime emission trading scheme as one of the possible options to reduce emissions of international shipping in the EU context.
[en] In this thesis, I address four distinct - yet closely linked - research questions related to the adoption of solar energy technologies in East Africa, which will be summarized in the following section. Chapter 2 starts with an analysis of the history, status and prospects of solar energy markets in Kenya and Tanzania, and a comparison of both countries. Chapter 3 investigates the main determinants of solar home system (SHS) adoption in Kenya, and lighting fuel choices among Kenyan households. Chapter 4 examines the cost of (and potential for) large-scale, grid-connected solar PV adoption in Kenya, and Chapter 5 looks at the influence of financing costs on the economics of solar PV on a global level. With my research I therefore contribute to the policy debate surrounding the African energy challenge by looking at two countries in particular, namely Kenya and Tanzania. I have chosen this geographic focus deliberately, as both countries - while well-endowed with sunshine - at present use only very little solar energy. Thus, while the practical focus on East Africa in three of the four chapters implies that the wider African energy challenge is not tackled head on, many of the findings and conclusions from the study of Kenya and Tanzania are in my view transferable to other countries in Africa, and probably even beyond that continent. In conducting research on the solar energy markets of East Africa over the past five years (2009-2014) I have certainly learnt that this continent does not offer the easiest research environment, and a clear focus on a small set of countries and only one renewable energy technology has been very important. Rigorous, high-quality research requires good information, such as data and statistics, as well as appropriate methods; and while the latter are in good supply, the former are painfully lacking for many aspects of life in East Africa. This poses a major challenge for (quantitative) research and has greatly impacted what I could and could not do in my own work. The focus of this thesis is on solar energy technologies, as these have progressed most rapidly in recent years and as the (physical) potential to use the sun's energy is especially large in (East) Africa (Mandelli et al., 2014). Furthermore, solar energy technologies (particularly solar photovoltaics, or solar PV) have already been adopted on a larger scale in many developing countries in Africa and elsewhere (as well as developed countries, where they are being used to an even larger scale). For my research, this means that there were at least some data, history of market development, technology policies and evidence from previous research to work with. The overall contribution of my work is two-fold: First, I address specific research questions of relevance to both researchers and policymakers; and second, I do this in the context of a continent that is in many ways under-researched. According to Das et al. (2013) only around 3% of peer-reviewed papers in leading economics journals deal with sub-Saharan Africa, despite the fact that it accounts for some 12% of the global population (World Bank, 2010). In this context, the potential and future role of solar energy technologies for African development is one important aspect that is not yet fully understood. Helping to address this knowledge gap and advancing the knowledge frontier consequently seems of great relevance for informed policy decisions on both sustainable development and climate change mitigation.
[en] Germany is currently restructuring its energy system, an endeavor its chancellor, Angela Merkel, called the project of the century. This Energiewende has moved into rough waters in recent years. The relatively high and rapidly growing shares of fluctuating renewable energy sources (mainly wind and photovoltaic) have led to numerous technical and socio-economic challenges. The unclear and sometimes contradictory policy goals of the Energiewende as well as suboptimally designed policy instruments in key areas of the Energiewende are the two major areas of concerns of this dissertation. The aim of this dissertation is to contribute to the solution of selected challenges of the Energiewende in the context of goals and policy instruments. In this regard, the following four research questions are addressed: 1. What are the goals of the Energiewende and how do they interact with the design of policy instruments? 2. What are the impacts of the German nuclear phase-out on the electricity market and the security of supply? 3. How do different designs of support mechanisms for renewable energy affect the riskdistribution between society, investors in renewable energy and investors in conventional power plants? 4. What is the impact of ex-post transaction costs on the cost-effectiveness of selected climate policy instruments? The main results and the subsequent policy conclusions of this thesis can be summarized as follows: The research on the goals of the Energiewende was based on a survey among elite policy actors, which showed that climate protection is the most important goal of the Energiewende. However, climate protection is neither the only goal, nor an indispensable one. Additional goals such as the nuclear phase-out, import independence from fossil fuels and job creation also play an important role. A large majority agrees that the Energiewende would make sense even if climate change did not exist. The following policy conclusions can be derived: first, there should be a clear, transparent and public debate on the goals of the Energiewende, i.e. a debate on what the Energiewende is actually bound to achieve. Second, economic policy analysis of the Energiewende should acknowledge the multiplicity of political goals and take them into account in their models. Regarding the phase-out of the German nuclear power plants it is found that the precise date for the complete shut-down of Germany's nuclear power plants has a relatively small effect on the wholesale electricity price and security of supply. The following policy conclusion can be derived: the German nuclear phase-out will neither have a substantial effect on the wholesale electricity prices, nor on the security of supply. Regarding the design of RES-support schemes it is found that the distribution of long-term electricity price risk between society and investors strongly depends on various set ups. A design that exposes RES-investors to higher risks may result in more efficient investments. However, more risks for RES-investors means that small actors (e.g. cooperatives) have less opportunities to invest in the Energiewende, because they are less capable to hedge long-term price risks efficiently. The following policy conclusion can be derived: the question whether investors in RES, investors in conventional power plants or society should carry the long term electricity price risk is a political (i.e. distributional) issue, which crucially depends on political goals such as actor diversity. On the question of transaction costs of climate policy instruments: the ex-post transaction costs are relatively low for instruments such as emissions trading systems and affect the costeffectiveness only slightly. The following policy conclusion can be derived: Given the minor role of ex post transaction costs, they can be neglected as a source of significant distortions. However, this statement only refers to regions with strong institutions (such as the EU or the US). The focus in policy instrument design should be on properties that fundamentally influence cost effectiveness as well as equity and political economy considerations.
[en] In times of increasing global uncertainties, science takes a central position for policy decisions. According to Peter M. Haas, epistemic communities are able to influence the cooperative behavior of states through their consensual knowledge. This book critically examines this statement. As the case of the Framework Convention on Climate Change shows, the World Climate Council (IPCC) was not in a position to enforce its solution options in the intergovernmental negotiations, as these affected the individual convictions of the decision-makers. While Angela Merkel advocated an agreement, the US government under George W. Bush denied the existence of climate change. Decision-makers and their individual convictions must therefore have a greater significance in international politics.
[de]In Zeiten zunehmender globaler Unsicherheiten nimmt die Wissenschaft fuer die Entscheidungen der Politik eine zentrale Stellung ein. Epistemic communities sind nach Peter M. Haas durch ihr konsensuales Wissen in der Lage, das Kooperationsverhalten von Staaten zu beeinflussen. Das vorliegende Buch prueft diese Aussage kritisch. Wie der Fall der Klimarahmenkonvention zeigt, war der Weltklimarat (IPCC) nicht in der Lage, seine Loesungsoptionen in den zwischenstaatlichen Verhandlungen durchzusetzen, da diesen die individuellen Ueberzeugungen der Entscheidungstraeger entgegenstanden. Waehrend Angela Merkel ein Abkommen befuerwortete, bestritt die US-Regierung unter George W. Bush die Existenz des Klimawandels. Entscheidungstraegern und ihren individuellen Ueberzeugungen muss daher in der internationalen Politik eine staerkere Bedeutung zukommen.