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[en] The book on European emission trading, renewable energy law and the law of governmental environmental allowances covers the following issues: The European emission trading system and the European law on competition, the European emission trading system and competitive concerns; The European renewable energy law and the European law on competition, The European renewable energy law and competitive concerns; environmental protection the European competition policy.
[en] The scope of the book is on the one hand support for the power industry defining investment and sales strategies that intend optimum supply security in the view of the customer and on the other hand the information for energy and environmental politicians demonstrating the conflict of objectives. The following issues are covered: technical and organizational aspects of electricity supply, theoretical background of the security of electricity supply, security of supply for economic sections, security of electricity supply for private households: theoretical microeconomic approach, security of electricity supply for private households: method of defined preferences, security of electricity supply in the context of climate protection and nuclear phase-out.
[en] Countries new directive on energy is related to economic growth, and this growth is related to energy requirements. Generate energy not only stable and secure, but also consistent with international standards is to generate the minimum greenhouse gas emissions. The nuclear power is obtained by a fission reaction from his main element uranium nuclei (U). 1g fission U / day, releases about 1 MW equivalent to 3 tons of coal. Worldwide there are over 400 operative nuclear reactors generating electricity. In Chile there is none, but it has considered incorporating some. However, since 2006 several governments disapprove installation of a nuclear power plant, this is because a lack of professional, and appropriate institutions and the denial of citizens. The objective of the study is to analyze the relationship between levels of information and people's knowledge in the province of Santiago about nuclear power energy and their position at moment of discuss and/or decide on possible places for nuclear power plants in Chile. Therefore a face-to-face surveyed was made to 400 people, 15 years above. The results of the analysis of the survey indicates the main issue to acceptance of nuclear energy in Chile is because a lack of information of population. There is a relation between more studies a person possesses, so is favorable his or her opinion regarding on construction of nuclear power plants. South of Santiago's province congregate population preferably, socioeconomic classification D. They have less knowledge about nuclear energy and also concentrated the highest opposition to a construction of nuclear power plants in Santiago. By other hand younger people between 15 years old and 24 years old accepted nuclear power energy by 51 %. Men prefer nuclear energy in constrast 21 % of women
[en] After a literature survey enabling the determination of the advantages and drawbacks of existing methods of assessment of the potential energy gains of an industrial site, this research report presents a newly developed method, named Energy and Exergy Analysis of Transformation Processes (or AEEP for Analyse energetique et exergetique des procedes de transformation), while dealing with actual industrial operations, in order to demonstrate the systematic character of this method. The different steps of the method are presented and detailed, one of them, the process analysis, being critical for the application of the developed method. This particular step is then applied to several industrial unitary operations in order to be a base for future energy audits in the concerned industry sectors, as well as to demonstrate its generic and systematic character. The method is the then applied in a global manner to a cheese manufacturing plant, all the different steps of the AEEP being applied. The author demonstrates that AEEP is a systematic method and can be applied to all energy audit levels, moreover to the lowest levels which have a relatively low cost
[en] In order to fight against the climatic change, the European directive 87/2003 provides for 2005 the adoption of a European market of negotiable releases permits but entrusts each state with choosing the method of permits allocation to the concerned domestic firms. Underwriting the reaching of the aim of pollution abatement in minimizing the global costs developed, the permits market is an economical tool of environmental policy chose for this double efficiency. But on which criteria determine the initial allocation? One of the most pertinent referents is the equity. What are the requirements for this in this situation? Seizing on this question, the thesis considers the contribution that can bring the moral and political philosophy, in particular the theories of the distributive justice, taking into account of two important aspects of the problem: 1)the property to distribute has particular characteristics, particularly the negotiability; 2)the attributing agents are firms and not the physical persons. In the first part, the thesis reveals, via the economical analysis, the operation of a permit competitive market and identifies the stakes, both at the pollution decision level than of the firms production in various contexts of market, and at those of the input or output decisions. In the second part, this work deals with the justice theories. The approach consists at first to establish their relevance showing that a firm can be considered as a moral entity, and be subject of duties and rights. Then, the question is to adapt the theories argumentation to this entity. This work emphasizes particularly the idea of a right to the chances equality for the competitiveness. It is then in the tension between this right and the duty to comply with the environmental policy that is found the equitable allocation. (O.M.)
[en] This thesis consists of four essays that aim at contributing to the understanding of some of the new challenges associated by the liberalized energy markets. More specifically the essays consider investments in energy generation projects; international trade of Green Certificates, market power in a Green Certificate system, and finally the behaviour of public firms in liberalized markets. Essay 1 considers energy investment, when a choice has to be made between fossil fuel and biomass fired production technologies. A dynamic model is presented to illustrate the effect of the different degrees of input price uncertainty on the choice of technology and the timing of the investment. It is shown that when the choice of technology is irreversible, it may be optimal to postpone the investment even if it would otherwise be optimal to invest in one or both of the plant types. We provide a numerical example based on cost estimates of two different power plant types. Essay 2 presents an analytical equilibrium model for simultaneously functioning international markets for electricity and Green Certificates is formulated. The percentage requirement is perceived as the policy instrument affecting the level of green electricity in end-use consumption. In none of the cases considered does an increase in the country's percentage requirement necessarily result in an increase in the generation of green electricity in that country, but it may have a positive effect on the trading partner's generation of green electricity. Further, under quite realistic assumptions, a country maximizes its generation of green electricity by setting the percentage requirement to zero. In essay 3 an analytic equilibrium model for a simultaneously functioning electricity market and a market for Green Certificates is formulated. The major focus of the paper is the effect of market power in a Green Certificate system. One of the main results is that the certificate system faced with market power may basically collapse into a system of per unit subsidies. In essay 4 a simple analytic equilibrium model is used to describe a mixed oligopoly market in which a public firm operates with private firms. The authorities have to choose whether public firms shall be involved in acquisitions. We consider two acquisition strategies: 1) a public firm acquires shares in one of its privately owned competitors; and 2) one of the private companies acquires shares in the public company. The analysis shows that acquisitions in either direction will generate a welfare gain as compared with a strategy with no acquisitions. Second, given that the authorities maximize social surplus, their choice between Strategy 1 and 2 depends on the degree of competition in the market
[en] This thesis aims to contribute to the construction of a theoretical and methodological framework for the analysis of symbolic mediations which occur in the public sphere during public debates. Firstly, we discuss the epistemological conditions of a search for ideological forms shaped by the circulation of discourses. Secondly, we show that conversations about civil nuclear power among internet users on comment boards of online news web sites are structured by a limited number of frames of intelligibility that we call 'modes of apprehension'. These modes of apprehension never occur in their canonic form: they only appear by fragments in the speech of individuals. Hence, an argumentative analysis of discourse can be used to rebuild them by reordering the multiple 'topoi' in consistent and coherent universes of meaning. Bringing out these modes of apprehension, forged and perpetuated by the circulation of discourses, has three main interests: we highlight some of the symbolic mediations of the social communication about civil nuclear power after Fukushima; we underline some of the main political and philosophical issues of the question; and we examine some of the dominant ideological sedimentations of our modernity. (author)
[en] This thesis studies the role of innovation and industrial structures in the nuclear power sector. The analysis of innovation is based on the use of patent data as a measure of innovation effort. On the one hand, we study the determinants of innovation and, on the other hand, its impact on operating and safety performance of existing nuclear reactors and on construction costs. We show that nuclear safety regulation can induce innovation and improve safety performance, but at the same time contributes to increases in construction costs. The analysis of the role of industrial structures allows us to study the impact of learning by doing opportunities both for construction and operation of reactors, as well as the effect of electricity market liberalization on operating performance. In particular, we show that the divestiture of electricity production and distribution activities induces a substantial improvement in the availability of nuclear reactors. (author)
[en] This thesis deals with the newly role given to the renewable energies in a still rural French area, The Charente Maritime, while here and there, two issues are at stake: the question of climate change as well as the dramatic decrease of fossil energy stocks, in a period more and more turning towards the implementation of environment protection measures. Our research makes a review of the different renewable energies. Firstly the ones already produced and used in Charente Maritime, secondly the ones whose implementation is planned and eventually those which are in a state of project (hydroelectric, solar, wind and biomass energies). The thesis is also about the potential of these energies expansion, about their consequences on environment, and in the way farmers, local representatives, association leaders and inhabitants view them. As a conclusion the thesis shows that environment results that we can draw from all these innovations is mixed: while the use of renewable energies reduce a little the dependence of Charentaises countries from fossil energies, the direct environment impact of these new energy sources appears ambiguous and especially contrasted. The study has been made in a quite little geographical area. It is all the same representative of the current changes in the French as well as the European countryside, the local and national specificities having been clearly underlined. (author)
[fr]Cette these porte sur la place nouvellement attribuee aux energies renouvelables dans un departement francais encore largement rural, la Charente-Maritime, alors que commence a se poser, ici comme ailleurs, la question du changement climatique et celle de l'epuisement des energies fossiles dans un contexte privilegiant de plus en plus la mise en place de mesures de protection de l'environnement. La these passe en revue les differentes energies renouvelables d'ores et deja produites et utilisees en Charente-Maritime ou dont la mise en oeuvre est envisagee (hydroelectricite, solaire, eolien, energie issue de la biomasse). Plusieurs exemples precis d'exploitations agricoles impliquees dans la production et la consommation de ces nouvelles energies sont longuement presentes. La these s'interesse egalement au potentiel de developpement de ces energies, a leurs retombees sur l'environnement et a la facon dont elles sont percues, tant par les agriculteurs que les elus locaux, les responsables d'associations ou les habitants en general. Il apparait clairement que la politique de developpement des energies renouvelables actuellement menee en Charente-Maritime est incitative, tout particulierement en ce qui concerne l'energie solaire et la biomasse energie au profit desquelles les aides regionales et departementales sont importantes (mise en oeuvre d'une filiere locale bois - energie dans le pays Saintonge Romane). Par contre, l'edification de parcs eoliens est freinee par les pouvoirs publics en raison de leur trop fort impact paysager dans un departement a vocation touristique affirmee. La these montre, en fin de compte, que le bilan environnemental que l'on peut tirer de toutes ces innovations apparait mitige: le recours aux energies renouvelables reduit un peu la dependance des campagnes charentaises a l'egard des energies fossiles, mais l'impact environnemental direct de ces nouvelles sources d'energie apparait ambigu et pour le moins contraste. L'etude, quoique conduite dans un cadre territorial relativement restreint, est neanmoins largement representative des transformations en cours dans les campagnes francaises, voire europeennes, les particularites locales et nationales ayant ete clairement soulignees. (auteur)
[en] The analysis of the shale gas controversy in France and Quebec at an intermediate (meso) level stresses the social and political construction and dispute processes of the various framing supported by contesting actors' networks. 'Interestment' dynamics both inside and outside public policies show the multiple scenes and forums in which the controversy unfold. The analysis of how this public problem is built and its various re-definitions shows the core role of political framing of controversies. The solutions define as well as they reduce the risk related to this new industry (a technological risk in France and a frame on social acceptability in Quebec). It is then important to stress the procedural dimension of problematizing the stakes regarding public participation and scientific expertise. This study questions the various actors of the controversy, those of social mobilization, the industry and the political and administrative structures, to map both their position and their discourses since the beginnings of the new industrial activity of exploring for shale gas (2008) to the latest political developments (2015). This study is based on a corpus of qualitative interviews (40), press articles (2 400) and a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the various reports and committees on shale gas. (author)
[fr]L'analyse de la controverse sur le gaz de schiste en France et au Quebec a un niveau intermediaire (meso) permet de souligner les processus de construction et contestation sociale et politique des differents cadrages soutenus par les reseaux d'acteurs en concurrence. Les dynamiques d'interessement a l'interieur et a l'exterieur de l'action publique illustrent les multiples scenes et forums dans lesquels se deploie la controverse. L'analyse de la construction de ce probleme public et ses diverses redefinitions demontre le role central du cadrage politique des controverses. Les solutions retenues definissent tout autant qu'elles tentent de reduire le risque relatif a cette nouvelle industrie gaziere (face a un risque cadre comme technologique en France, on observe un cadrage sur l'acceptabilite sociale au Quebec). Il s'agit alors d'insister particulierement sur la dimension procedurale de problematisation des enjeux au regard du recours a la participation publique et a l'expertise scientifique. Les multiples acteurs de cette controverse sont interroges: les participants a la mobilisation sociale mais aussi les acteurs de l'industrie et des structures politiques et administratives, afin de dresser la cartographie de leur position mais aussi de leurs discours depuis les premices de cette nouvelle activite industrielle d'exploration du gaz de schiste (2008) jusqu'aux derniers rebondissements politiques (2015). Cette recherche s'appuie sur un corpus d'entretiens qualitatifs (40) mais aussi d'articles de presse ecrite (2 400) ainsi que sur l'analyse qualitative et quantitative des divers rapports et commissions de travail sur le gaz de schiste. (auteur)