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[en] During the last regular session of the IAEA General Conference, the Agency organized, on 20 September 1962, a public meeting at which leading personalities in the national atomic energy programmes of six Member States described some of the important aspects of these programmes, especially in the field of nuclear power. The speakers were Professor V.S. Emelyanov, Deputy Chairman, State Committee for the Utilization of Atomic Energy, USSR; Dr. G.C. Laurence, President, Atomic Energy Control Board, Canada; Sir Roger Makins, Chairman, Atomic Energy Authority, United Kingdom; Professor Francis Perrin, High Commissioner, Atomic Energy Commission, France; Dr. Glenn T. Seaborg, Chairman, Atomic Energy Commission, USA; Dr. I.H. Usmani, Chairman, Atomic Energy Commission, Pakistan
[en] A wide variety of projects for the provision of experts and equipment to 32 countries has been approved by the IAEA Board of Governors for 1964. Further work is being financed under the United Nations Expanded Programme of Technical Assistance; altogether, the services of about 100 experts in the field are called for, in addition to those who are still at work on earlier assignments. The estimated cost of the Agency's 1964 programme is $804 600, of which $459 200 is for the services of experts, and $345 400 for the provision of equipment and supplies. In addition, $513 500 is being allocated for EPTA programmes. It is becoming increasingly difficult, however, for the Agency to meet the growing number of requests and lack of finance may prevent its programme from being carried out in full. Many of these requests come from newly independent countries which have become Member States, and which seek assistance in developing national atomic energy programmes. In addition, numerous research reactors and radioisotope laboratories are being built or have recently been completed under bilateral arrangements which are normally limited to the period of construction. Most of these new centres then require some form of assistance in their programmes of research and training. Such a group could help the new centres with the technical aspects of the programme, and could also be helpful in furthering regional collaboration. There is evidently no lack of local talent and initiative in the regions where these meetings have been held. Given the lead, they should be able to organize a more fruitful utilization of research facilities, with the Agency supplementing local effort by acting as a clearing-house for information and assistance, on the lines indicated in its long-range plan. The study group meetings are also helping to create greater awareness in the advanced countries about the work and needs of the developing centres. As a result, it may be hoped that the advanced centres will take greater interest in these new centres and establish closer relations with them. One method of achieving this could be through 'sister laboratory' arrangements, - whereby two centres join forces - at first in order to assist the newly established one, but eventually for mutual benefit completed under bilateral arrangements which are normally limited to the period of construction. Most of these new centres then require some form of assistance in their programmes of research and training. The programme outlined below forms a part only of the Agency's work in the field of technical assistance, which includes a number of other closely related activities, such as exchange of visiting professors, provision of fellowships, and organization of regional training courses - the latter often involving the provision of equipment. All these matters are now being administered by the Agency's Department of Technical Assistance. The projects approved by the Board for this year cover a fairly wide range of topics - from raw materials prospecting and treatment to reactor construction, and from use of radioisotopes in fisheries research to their use in medicine.
[en] Ten years have elapsed since the world's first nuclear power station began to supply electricity in Russia, and this in turn marked the end of a twelve year stage following the first controlled nuclear chain reaction at Chicago. These periods mark major stages in the development of atomic energy from the realm of abstract ideas to that of everyday industrial application. They followed a period of fundamental research and laboratory work, culminating in Enrico Fermi's demonstration of a system whereby the forces of the atom could be brought under control. Then it was necessary to find ways and means of using the chain reaction for practical purposes and on an industrial scale. And after this had been shown in 1954 to be technically possible, it had still to be developed into an economic process. The nuclear power station has proved itself from the technical and engineering standpoint. The third phase of development has been to bring it to the stage of being economically competitive with alternative sources of energy, and it would appear that we are now reaching that goal - though more slowly than had been envisaged ten years ago
[en] Another six years have passed and we are gathered together here again to discuss the results of much investigation and research, to assess the experience acquired in the course of those six years in the practical application of the discovery made a quarter of a century ago and to hazard a scientific forecast of future developments. Much has been done during the past six years. They have been years of intensive scientific research. During this period, physics and atomic technology have recorded substantial advances in all the fundamental disciplines of nuclear physics - in the fields of low-energy physics, plasma physics and high-energy physics. In the field of low-energy physics, considerable attention is currently being given to work on the practical application of the nuclear fission reaction. In research laboratories, ways of increasing the efficiency of plant and equipment are being studied, the accuracy of specific data indispensable for engineering and design calculations is being improved, means the way in which this was being done in one or two developing countries. A theme of much interest also was the possibility of nuclear energy for combined production of electricity and desalted water. Prospecting mining and treatment of uranium and thorium were discussed, and a general session was devoted to progress in research on controlled thermonuclear fusion. The programme provided for only limited references to radioisotopes, which had been discussed recently at a number of specialized symposia and conferences. Two general sessions were therefore devoted to survey papers describing the applications of radioisotopes in industry, the physical sciences, the life sciences and radiobiology. During the conference, a governmental scientific exhibition was held, in which eighteen governments took part. The bulk of this research is directed towards practical ends, because the fission reaction serves as the basis for atomic power engineering, for the construction of atomic power plants. Today, there is no longer any doubt that-atomic reactors can be put to practical use to generate electricity
[en] In order to reduce limitations of solubility, the cryoscopic method developed for benzene solutions of polyphenyl mixtures has been extended to diphenyl-ether solutions by introducing some modifications imposed by the physico-chemical properties of this solvent. The Nernsto theory of Beckman's method has been revised, taking into account the heat-transfer characteristics of the system, and the results of that analysis have been used to fix upon the design parameters of a cryoscopic apparatus for measurements on diphenyl-ether solutions. (Author) 9 refs
[en] The basic circumstances which stimulated Finland's interest in nuclear power are summarized in the report as follows: 'In Finland the main power resource has been, and still is, water power. It is clear, however, that the hydro potential is insufficient to cover the increasing consumption over a long period of time. Already about one half of this potential has been exploited. Thus the country will necessarily have to consider the utilization of thermal power to an increasingly large extent. There is no indigenous coal or oil. For this reason it has become necessary to investigate realistically the possibilities offered by nuclear power'
[en] During April, May and June this year, an IAEA mission visited nine countries in Africa and one in the Middle East to study their prospects, plans and activities for atomic energy applications and to assess their needs for assistance from the Agency. This preliminary assistance mission, which was the ninth of its kind to be sent out by the Agency, went to three countries in East Africa, namely Kenya, Tanganyika and Uganda; to three countries in West Africa, namely Cameroon, Gabon and Togo; to three other African countries, namely the Congo (Leopoldville), Ethiopia and Madagascar; and to the Lebanon. In all these countries, the Agency team held extensive discussions with the national authorities, collected information on their plans or activities in the atomic energy field as well as on subjects that may have a bearing on the prospects of atomic energy applications, gave them such advice on the spot as was needed, and assisted them in formulating requests for Agency assistance for implementing their atomic energy programmes. The mission's reports on its visits will not only help the Agency in dealing with such requests, but serve generally as reference sources regarding the conditions and prospects in these countries for the development of atomic energy for peaceful purposes. Some of the information contained in these reports, which is likely to be of wide interest, is summarized in this article
[en] The authors define the notions of use values and price of plutonium. They give a 'simplified parametrized model' simulating the equilibrium of the offer and the demand in time, concerning the plutonium and the price deriving from the relative scarcity of this metal, taking into account the technical and economic operating parameters of the various reactors confronted. This model is simple enough to allow direct computations and establish clear relations between the various parameters. The use of the linear programmes method allows on the other hand a wide extension of the model. This report includes three main parts: I - General description of the study (without detailed calculations) II - Mathematical development of the simplified parametrized model and application (the basic data and the results of the calculations are given) III - Appendices (giving the detailed computations of part II). (authors)
[fr]Les auteurs definissent les notions de valeurs d'usage et de prix du plutonium. Ils donnent un 'modele parametre simplifie' simulant l'equilibre de l'office et de la demande dans le temps concernant le plutonium et le prix qui decoule de la rarete relative de ce metal, compte tenu des parametres techniques et economiques de fonctionnement des divers reacteurs en presence. Ce modele est suffisamment simple pour permettre des calculs manuels et etablir des liaisons claires entre les divers parametres. L'utilisation de la technique des programmes lineaires permet par ailleurs une extension considerable du modele. Cette note comprend trois parties: I - Expose general de l'etude (sans expose du detail des calculs) II - Developpement mathematique du modele parametre simplifie et application (on precise les donnees de base et le resultat des calculs) III - Annexes (donnant le detail des calculs de la partie II). (auteurs)
[en] An international panel of experts appointed by the Agency's Director General, after examining costing methods in detail, has recently produced a report entitled 'Introduction to Methods of Estimating Nuclear Power Generating Costs'. The report is intended to help the Agency's Member States, particularly those which are less-developed in nuclear technology, in making a preliminary economic assessment before the construction of a nuclear power station. It gives a description of the different cost items involved in a nuclear power project, some suggestions as to the extrapolation of available data, and an evaluation of different methods of allocating the costs to the units of energy produced
[en] An extensive discussion of problems concerning the development of nuclear power took place at the fifth regular session of the IAEA General Conference in September-October 1961. Not only were there many references in plenary meetings to the nuclear power plans of Member States, but there was also a more specific and detailed debate on the subject, especially on nuclear power costs, in the Program, Technical and Budget Committee of the Conference. The Conference had before it a report from the Board of Governors on the studies made by the Agency on the economics of nuclear power. In addition, it had been presented with two detailed documents, one containing a review of present-day costs of nuclear power and the other containing technical and economic information on several small and medium-sized power reactors in the United States. The Conference was also informed of the report on methods of estimating nuclear power costs, prepared with the assistance of a panel of experts convened by the Agency, which was reviewed in the July 1961 issue of this Bulletin