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[en] Before the United States of America can arrive at a coherent national energy policy, several ongoing debates must be resolved - on environmental hazards, health impacts, and the direct economic consequences of alternative future energy options. No one strategy is obviously correct - or uniquely ethical. Each strategy has its drawbacks, each can be blocked by one or another coalition of interest groups. The public is poorly informed by the media. A single large coal-mine accident is far more extensively reported than a long series of isolated accidents at grade crossings for coal trains, and yet the latter causes more deaths each year. Similarly, the public debate on nuclear issues is focused on low-probability, high-consequence events. It is as though national policy were being framed by a gambler whose motto is 'it's only the stakes and not the odds that matter'. The two authors of this paper come from different disciplines, yet they both believe that the odds do matter. It is essential that the public be well informed about the health risks and the economic consequences of a moratorium on the civilian uses of nuclear energy in the USA. We think that such a moratorium would adversely affect health and the economy. These impacts although small in relation, say, to the overall death rate or to the overall gross national product are not small in an absolute sense The adverse consequences of a moratorium are much more certain, and surely outweigh the impacts of any plausible accident associated with the operation of power reactors
[en] An IAEA Advisory Group Meeting on Fuel Cycle Demand, Supply and Cost Trends was held in Vienna on 11-14 November 1975 for the purpose of obtaining an overall review of the nuclear fuel cycle. The discussions covered the entire nuclear fuel cycle beginning with projections of world nuclear power capacities through the year 2000 and the resulting demands for fuel cycle services, followed by examination in detail of the steps of the fuel cycle. (author)
[en] Some applications of solar power have an easy technology, and are a matter for the present or immediate future. The methods for the large-scale production of electricity, however, cannot mature before the end of the century, even if determined efforts are begun now. May it be recalled that some 30 years also elapsed between the discovery of nuclear fission and the start of the first economic nuclear power stations. Investments into R and D were thus needed for decades. In nuclear science, it was relatively easy to find the finance because the military was interested. But in view of its tremendous importance for the welfare of mankind it should be at least equally easy to bridge the gap in respect to solar power. May it be underlined that far more money has indeed been found, and is being found, for CERN in Geneva, which is of purely scientific-academic interest and cannot promise much valuable practical 'spin-off'. The United Nations, the countries of the First, Second and Third World, ought to shoulder their responsibility in respect to solar energy. Energetic steps towards the founding of the International Solar Power Institute should be taken right now. (author)
[en] After an overview of some basic issues regarding energy (history, measurement units, world energy consumption, different types of energy, energy demand, energy resources, cost of energy imports), this report proposes an overview of the different new energies, of their means of production, and of their applications. It first addresses solar energies by distinguishing direct solar energy (thermal conversion, thermodynamic conversion, production of electric power with different types of plants, futuristic projects), and energies issued from phenomena resulting from solar activity (wind energy, sea energies, biomass). The second part addresses other sources of new energy by distinguishing those which will be soon exploited (geothermal energy, methane fermentation) or should be later exploited (thermonuclear fusion, hydrogen).
[en] Energy plays an important role in the development of the Sahel Countries. For instance, in these countries, the use of wood fire is essential as a source of energy. However, the increase in the wood supply leads to environmental problems; hence the necessity for the states to promote alternative source of energy to replace the wood. Used in the field of agriculture, transport, industry and construction, energy in Sahel countries hurts to financial problems such as difficulties in the funding of oil import and supply security. It is then indispensable to develop energy resources in the Sahel countries. Energy policies must emphasize on hydroelectric energy, nuclear energy and also better reorganize certain sources of energy such as gas, oil, and coal. Thus this political assumption of responsibility through a comprehensive approach will contribute to generate the development of the Sahel countries
[fr]L energie occupe une place importante dans le developpement des pays du Sahel. Dans ces pays, le bois de feu occupe une place essentielle dans le domaine energetique. L augmentation de l approvisionnement en bois entraine des problemes environnementaux, ce qui amene les Etats a promouvoir d autres combustibles en remplacement du bois de chauffe. Utilisee dans des secteurs comme l'agriculture, le transport, l industrie et le batiment, l energie dans les pays saheliens connait des difficultes dans le financement des importations petrolieres et la securisation de l approvisionnement. Il devient alors necessaire de developper les ressources energetiques dans les Etats Saheliens. Les politiques energetiques doivent promouvoir l energie hydroelectrique, l'energie nucleaire et mieux reorganiser certaines sources d energie telles le gaz, le petrole et le charbon. Ainsi cette prise en charge politique a travers une approche globale va contribuer a engendrer le developpement des pays saheliens
[en] This book contains current situation on petrochemical industry with supply and demand, instruction, production, assignment in Korea, such as export and import, task on petrochemistry about raw material. It also deals with view on petrochemistry in Korea such as check the goal of development of petrochemistry basics, preview on supply and demand and evaluation of international competitive power with prospect of international situation, process of import and export, and general prospect and making policy on petrochemical industry.
[en] This decree issued by the Austrian Ministry for Health and Environmentalism grants permission for the operation of “Zwentendorf“, Austria´s first nuclear power plant, combined with regulations about the emission of radioactive substances, aerosols and inert gas during a normal operation. The regulations about incidents apart from a normal operation are not included in this decree. (kancsar)
[en] This document is an invitation to a conference in Salzburg, Austria, that was held in the year 1977 and was about the controversial theme of nuclear-energy and their civil and military use. It was a meeting of non-governmental experts and activists. An agenda of the conference is attached. (kancsar)
[en] This is the third report to follow the Project Group Meeting on ALTERNATIVE ENERGY RESOURCES, Barbados, September, 1977. It consists of summaries of projects proposals identified at the Meeting. The first two reports have been previously circulated. The first CSC(77)AER-1 covers the background, proceedings and recommendations resulting from the meeting as well as containing a brief outline of the project proposals. The country papers and technical papers that were presented at the meeting or served as background material, form the second report, CSC(77)AER-2. Copies of the first two reports can be obtained on request to the Commonwealth Science Council. Projects with potential for making significant progress in the short term have been marked with an asterisk
[en] Full text: Recent forecasts indicate that by the year 2000 there will be more than 1000 nuclear power plants operating in 50 countries and with several countries expecting to derive one-half or more of their electric generation from nuclear power plants At present only six countries are exporters of nuclear power systems, three more currently supply their own domestic markets, while the remainder are importers. It is expected that most of the importers will continue to depend to varying degrees on foreign supply, at least in the near future. If nuclear power is to offer an important benefit to the world, the achievement of this benefit will require co-operation between the supplying and receiving nations in overcoming problems which might inhibit the full development of this energy source. In addition to ensuring safety and reliability, special problem areas include financing, skilled manpower needs, adequate local industrial and engineering infrastructure, access to advanced technology, and an assured supply of nuclear fuel. The symposium had special emphasis on the problems facing many of the developing countries in the initial stages of nuclear power programmes, and was divided into three major topics nuclear safety, domestic contributions, and international aspects In the safety area, emphasis was given to the special considerations that may exist for countries that import nuclear plants. These special considerations can be due to some non-standard features of the exported reactor such as lower power ratings, dissimilar site characteristics that can effect the design, and the evolution and changes in design and safety requirements during construction. This can be complicated by differences in safety philosophy and codified standards of the various suppliers and unique construction problems in the less developed countries. Thus, the ability of the importing country to carry out the regulatory and safety function is obviously important. A number of presentations were concerned with actual experiences and practices of countries in the planning and operation of their regulatory and safety review organizations. With respect to domestic participation, a nuclear power project has much stricter requirements for quality control and assurance than would apply for a conventional plant and requires more than a simple extrapolation of the conventional skills of power plant technology. Thus attention must be given by the buyer country to establishing and training competent staff and to develop technical and labor skills of adequate quality in areas such as construction, welding, and electrical installation, to mention a few. Many of the papers presented in the sessions on domestic contribution concentrated on the important aspects of manpower development. In the general area of international aspects, besides the legal and political issues associated with the export and import of nuclear power plants, there is the important aspect of nuclear technology transfer. There is a clear trend toward a gradual but continuous increase of national capabilities in the construction and implementation of nuclear power projects with an attendent increase in the domestic contribution of equipment, materials and engineering. Five papers were presented specifically related to technology transfer. In addition to the formal papers, there were three panel discussions. Hopefully, the symposium brought about an awareness on the part of both supplier and buyer of the special demands involved in planning, constructing, and operating nuclear power plants, especially in the developing countries. The proceedings will be published by the IAEA. (author)