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[en] For three sites located in Burundi, Madagascar and Rwanda which have been selected after a previous study, this document reports a feasibility study and the definition of the characteristics of micro geothermal plants which could be installed there. These plants convert thermodynamic energy into mechanical and electric energy, with a recoverable power of 15 kWe. After a description of the operation of such micro-plants (principle, hot water and cold water circuits, exchangers, engine, freon circuit, electric power production, regulation and automatism), and a description of the selected sites (location, physical and chemical characteristics), a pre-sizing is reported (fluid selection, needed water flow rates, components). The report discusses the use of the produced electric power, and reports an assessment of construction costs (site development, plant construction and installation), discusses the exploitation and installation of the plant. Results are globally discussed in terms of thermal and cold water flow rates, of possible electric power, and of chemistry of underground waters. If the operation appears to be technically feasible, the cost appears to be high due to the characteristics of the thermal water temperature
[en] This book tell US environmental problems and environmental conservation, theory with present situation of the problems, influence of environmental aggravation, and cause of environmental problems, environmental policy influencing environment such as the national environmental policy act in America, and the role of court and environmental policy act, jurisdiction investigation about administrative action which influence on environment, and standard of jurisdiction investigation in environmental problems and legislation of environmental rights.
[en] This reports introduction of effect and consideration of the introduction of computer-aided design and computer aided manufacturing system. It includes outline of CAD/CAM system like definition, classification, system kinds, and development process of CAD/CAM system, technology, market trend development prospect, and value on introduction of this system, and current application of CAD/CAM system in major application area, development countries and Korea.
[en] This document focus on Niger Republic mineral industries related points that are: socio-political and economical context; specific characters such as administrative, juridical and fiscal environment; citizens employment and training; actual situation and energy projects; transport; existing mining companies, construction materials enterprises and projects presentation; effect of mining sector and construction material on national economy and prior major problems to be solved
[fr]Ce document comprend des points lies a l'industrie minerale au Niger qui sont: le contexte socio-politique et economique; les caracteres specifiques tel que l'environnement administratif, juridique et fiscal; l'emploi et la formation des citoyens; situation actuelle et projets energetiques; le transport; la presentation des societes d'exploitation miniere et entreprises de materiaux de construction existantes et projets; les statistiques de production et d'exportation; l'impact du secteur mines et materiaux de construction sur l'economie nationale et les grands problemes prioritaires a resoudre
[en] The paper discusses the nuclear technology takeover, acceptance and adoption; technology transfer contents and structure; the structure of local acceptance; the role, contents and significance of individual preparations with particular acceptance; nuclear technology transfer and takeover organization model; role of network planning within the process of technology transfer, takeover, acceptance and adaptation; as well as the role and model of completion of local infrastructure as required for technology transfer and acceptance. (author)
[en] This book mentions policy and process of innovation in techniques, which deals with introduction, macroscopic analysis of development of science and technology including analysis of existing research about system of development on science and technology and new development system of science and technology, macroscopic analysis of development of science and technology of Korea. It also indicates innovation of technology in Korean industry with various access.
[en] 1 - Description of problem or function: ORSIM is an electric power generating system integration model which simulates the multi-year operation of a mixed power system consisting of fossil, nuclear, hydroelectric, and pumped-storage units. For any specified refueling schedule for nuclear units and future load forecast, the model determines a plan of operation for the system which attempts to minimize the total discounted operating cost over a specified study period. The analysis considers the effects of forced outages, spinning reserve operating constraints, and scheduled introduction and retirement of generating stations. The model determines a maintenance schedule for the non-nuclear stations (nuclear stations are maintained during refueling outages) and the optimum allocation of energy-fixed nuclear and hydroelectric resources. It calculates the expected energy generated by each station in the system, by period over the planning horizon, based on input or calculated incremental operating cost. It also calculates the expected loss-of- load probability and un-served energy demand for each period in the planning horizon. An optimum operating plan, designed to minimize the discounted total production cost, is then calculated, as are the costs of operating each station in the system and the discounted total production cost for the derived plan of operation. 2 - Method of solution: ORSIM searches for a particular mode of operation which, over a multi-year planning horizon, will minimize the total system operating cost of a particular electric power generation system discounted to the beginning of the planning horizon. It does this by: (a) calculating the planned maintenance outages for all units; (b) estimating the incremental discounted cost of energy produced by each station in the system for every subinterval of the planning horizon; (c) utilizing the incremental discounted costs of energy generation to calculate, via probabilistic simulation, the economic optimum energies generated by each station in the system in each subinterval of the planning horizon; (d) utilizing these expected energies in a feedback loop to calculate the total discounted operation cost and to produce a new set of incremental discounted costs, thereby setting the stage for the next iteration. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maxima of: 90 nuclear stations, 90 must-run stations (i.e., stations which must operate at a specified capacity level when available), 90 two-piece stations (i.e., stations considered to be divided into two capacity blocks in the loading order calculation), 90 stations per system, 90 maintenance seasons
[en] Dr Eklund presented the Agency's annual report to the General Assembly of the United Nations at its thirty-fifth session on 6 November 1980. The Director General started with a brief examination of the prospects and outlook for nuclear power. OECD countries, Japan and the USA have significant nuclear power programmes. The Eastern European Socialist countries have recently embarked on major nuclear power programmes. The developing countries present a different picture, but work on economically feasible smaller plants progresses and electrical grids are expanding. It is forecast that not more than ten developing countries will be operating nuclear power plants by 1990, and at the most twenty by the turn of the century. However, the trend in orders for new nuclear plants is still declining, although at recent major conferences there was general agreement on the need to use nuclear energy, the environmental consequences of burning large quantities of coal and oil were stressed. The present stagnation in the nuclear industry has led to a decline in the availability of professional manpower
[en] This report proposes an inventory of knowledge in geothermal energy (high and low enthalpy) in 55 countries of the world concerned by this resource. For each country, a sheet briefly indicates currently exploited and potential fields, produced and foreseen powers, and some field characteristics (fluid nature, temperature, number of drilled wells), proposes a brief overview of the sector organization (indication of national bodies, and of foreign companies intervening in the country), and states some general remarks related to the local energy policy, and, in some cases, research orientations